Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Hyrum's First Settlers

CAMP HOLLOW On April 6, 1860 the first pioneers of Hyrum encamped on this stream, they lived in wagon boxes, shelters dug into the banks, tilled and planted about one hundred acres of virgin soil. Later in the fall, following the advice of Apostle Ezra Taft Benson, they moved about one mile south west, built a fort and named the place Hyrum in honor of the beloved brother of the prophet Joseph Smith, both of whom were martyred at Carthage, Illinois June 27, 1844. HEADS OF FAMILIES Ira Allen Niels B. Nielsen Hugh Parks Andrew A. Anderson Thomas Williams George Nielsen Calvin Bingham Christopher Olsen Andrew A. Allen Andrew Nielsen Alonzo Bingham Soren Neilsen Alva Benson Adam Smith Hans Monsen Oliver McBride William Williams Noah Brimhall David Osborn Jens Jensen Sr. Jonas Halversen Hans E. Nielsen David Parks Rasmus Jensen ERECTED 1962
HISTORY OF CAMP HOLLOW 125 YEARS LATER In March 1860 a group of pioneers left Cedar City to settle in Cache Valley. They explored the valley and decided to make a settlement about 5 miles east of Old Fort Wellsville, called Camp Hollow. These pioneers led by Ira Allen, arrived on April 8, 1860. At first they lived in wagon boxes or tents. Those that didn't have these, built 13 dugouts, holes in ground with logs at west end for wall. Larger logs were placed over top with thick covering over the branches. The settlers planted 100 acres of corn, wheat, oats and barley for winter. More families joined them and they decided they needed a townsite with more water and with higher and better drained land. In the fall of 1860 Camp Hollow was deserted.
Sherry Nelson wrote an article for the Hyrum Crusader as part of the U.S. Bicentennial and looking back.  She added, "They were sent by Brigham Young to settle a new area that could provide an outlet for the ever growing number of Saints pouring into Salt Lake Valley, and also to provide new grazing land for the livestock.  They found a beautiful valley.  The foliage and greenery were a joy to them and the children loved the abundance of the wild flowers.  But all was not rosy for these early settlers.  They had problems with water, the freezing bitter cold and with Indians."
Sherry also wrote a brief summary of Ira Allen, Captain of the first founding party, and talks about that first summer in this manner.
"The company could not go through the canyon east of Brigham City owing to the snow in the mountains, but went by way of Collinston over the low summit eastward, then south along the foothills to Fort Mendon, (then one year old), and south to Wellsville, arrive there April 1, 1860.
Springtime was near when the company arrived at Camp Hollow but the ground was not ready to plow.  Those who did not have wagon boxes and tents decided to make dugouts to live in.  Everybody worked like one big, united family and within two weeks plenty of timber was down.  Then part of the men and all of the ox teams rushed the plowing while the others excavated for dugouts.  Cooking was done outside.  The settlers lived in these dugouts, wagon boxes, tends and on log cabin.
They planted crops, but water was needed.  The canal from the Little Bear River was dug, using an old spirit level for navigation, and completed by 28 men and boy in 21 working days (not eight-hour days nor a forty-hour week, but from dawn until dark, about sixteen-hour days).  They camped on the ditch and Alva Benson used his son's mule team and went from family to family gathering what provisions he could get such as bread, butter and buttermilk and delivered them daily to the men.
Water reached the burning crops the first part of July, but the crops were so far gone that water didn't do much good, and crickets and grasshoppers soon made away with what was left.  Because of this distressing situation most of the men had to leave for Ogden and other places south to work to get food for the remainder of the season.
As soon as houses were ready, families left Camp Hollow and moved into the fort.  By late fall Camp Hollow was completely evacuated.  Hyrum was born.

Monday, May 27, 2013

Poppies and Memorial Day

In 1947 the U.S. published a stamp which honored Moina Belle Michael for establishing the Poppy Memorial Day, which occurs the Saturday before Memorial Day.  After WWI the poppy became a symbol of the tragedy of war.  This was further engrained in our psychy after John McCrae wrote the poem Flander's Fields.  He noticed poppies growing in the burial grounds for those who had died in the war.
In Flanders Fields: John McCrae
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

"Its references to the red poppies that grew over the graves of fallen soldiers resulted in the remembrance poppy becoming one of the world's most recognized memorial symbols for soldiers who have died in conflict"  (Wikipedia)

Michael wrote a poem responding to "In Flanders Fields"
We cherish too, the Poppy red
That grows on fields where valor led,
It seems to signal to the skies
That blood of heroes never dies.
She was instrumental in making the Poppy part of Memorial Day.  By 1922 Veterans of Foreign Wars began selling poppies.

The History of Gold Star Mothers

Manteca Ministerial, that puts on the festivities at Woodward Park does a very good job of honoring Gold Star Families.  I was doing a book for my stamp collection a few years back, and came across some information about Gold Star Mothers.  Gold Star Mothers was started during WWI in honor of George Vaughn Seibold by his mother Grace Seibold.  George was an aviator, who was shot down over France.  He had been cited for bravery before his death.  His family had difficulty finding out what happened when his letters stopped because he was attached to a foreign unit.  Grace kept herself from facing her son's probable death by visiting hospitals and serving.  She finally joined a group of women in similar circumstance.  Gold Star Families have a special part in our society.  Of course out veterans carry the bigger sacrifice, but their families have also sacrificed.  In my sister-in-law's family they lost a nephew to war violence this year, just before he was due to retire from the military.  I can not imagine the sacrifice.

A few years ago we had the honor of being a Blue Star Family.  These are families who have someone serving.  Mark was in Iraq.  Gold Star Families are those who have sacrificed a family member to defense of our freedom.

Saturday, May 25, 2013

Northwest Shoshone Tribe
I came across a very interesting article in the Deseret News about the Northwest Shoshone Tribe.  They were subject to the greatest one day loss of life as a result of the Bear River Massacre.  I have visited this site many times.  I lived for a couple years among the Western Shoshone People.  The Shoshone Nation extends from Wyoming, through Southern Idaho and into Nevada and even reaches California in the Death Valley area.  This article mentions that only ten people of the Northwest Tribe speak the native tongue.  I imagine that in different areas there are different accents and dialects, but there were a few who spoke the native tongue in Duckwater where I lived.  They also taught the language in school.  It was very difficult.  I know three or four words, Debus (stink bug) Habigna (flower) and summa waitha baitha watsawitha (one, two three, four.)  I wish I could remember more.  I know many native peoples are struggling to preserve their language and their heritage.
There were also many other beautiful things about the Western Shoshone culture.  The Bear Dance and the Round Dance were some of my favorite.  Also the gathering and roasting of pine nuts.  The native dress was beautiful.  Also the tradition of cradle boards.  The design of the Shoshone Cradle Board is unique and beautiful.  The are made of woven willow.  They work.  You can wrap a crying baby in a cradle board, and they are comforted by the tightness of the wrap.  We wrap them in a blanket in white culture, which works the same way.

Friday, May 24, 2013

Othello Radar Station

The Othello Radar Station was established in 1952.  This would have been shortly  before my family move there.  Wikipedia explains the reason for the station.  "Othello Air Force Station was one of twenty-eight stations built as part of the second segment of the Air Defense Command permanent radar network. Prompted by the start of the Korean War, on July 11, 1950, the Secretary of the Air Force asked the Secretary of Defense for approval to expedite construction of the permanent network."  I found this quote from the Othello Outlook 2012, "Sixty years ago July 25, 1952: Othello was able this week to take her place at the head of the list, as far as public spirit is concerned, as “Operation Skywatch” was put into action and the first week of observation completed without missing a single shift.  Long-range bombers have shrunk the world to the point that any place on earth is susceptible to an attack.  The air observers’ part is to locate low-flying aircraft that might be hostile.  Though the local post is manned on a 24-hour basis and is considered 100 percent staffed, another 10 volunteers are needed to place a double watch on at all times."  Operation Skywatch was a program to keep watch on the skies.  The radar company did this through the use of several different radar  as well as watching the sky, and using volunteers.  At the ten year mark, there was a presentation to the community, also reported in the Outlook:
Feb 8, 1962 p 8 The film “Operation Skywatch” sponsored jointly by the Pacific Northwest Bell Telephone Company and the 637th AC&W Radar Airbase played to a capacity house last Tuesday night. 
   The evening go off to a nice start when Robert Hill introduced Major McElroy who after welcoming the audience expressed his appreciation that the 637th was the site chosen for the Operation Skywatch.  After his brief speech, the Major introduced Ed Williams of Pacific Northwest Bell who demonstrated microwave, satellite transistors, solar cells, and radio waves to a highly appreciative audience.
   Col. Klem F. Kalberer acted in behalf of Col. Atkinson, both of Larson Air Base.  Col. Atkinson was unable to attend because of the illness of his wife.  Col. Kalberer accepted presentation of the film on the behalf of the Air force.  A call was placed to the Air Defense Headquarters in Colorado Springs and a picture of what planes were in the air within a certain range at the time the phone call was made was projected to the audience, over the loud speaker.
   Major MeElroy presented a copy of the film to Major Med Faudree for the city of Othello.
   The local Parent-Teacher Association, headed by Mrs. Howard Beitz and Mrs. Roger Hardan, served coffee and cookies to the more than 1,000 people who attended Operation Skywatch and stayed to enjoy the evening’s entertainment even if there was standing room only.

I think it is unusual that a community of 2000, would have over half the community at an event like this.

Wednesday, May 15, 2013

Ken Burns: The West: Episode 2: Empire Upon the Trails

I enjoy the history of the United States, and especially the West.  Of course the story is too broad to put in a series of movies, but the stories told are interesting.  This is the second part of the series directed by Steven Ives and produced by Ken Burns available through Netflix Instant.  It tells the story of the Whitmans in Washington, missionaries to the Cayuse Indians in Washington close to Walla Walla.  They blamed the Dr. Whitman for an outbreak of measles which killed half the tribe.  They decided to kill those in the mission, and the Dr. and his wife were killed, along with a couple of the Sager children.  The Sager family is a sad story.  Both parents died on the trek, leaving the children orphans in a strange land with no family.  They were adopted by the Whitmans, and subject to the massacre. 
This episode also tells the story of Texas and Sam Houston.  There were two episodes, not just one.  The Alamo and also the Battle of Goliad, where over three hundred Texians forces were executed after they had surrendered.  This was as much a rallying call as the Alamo.  This painted Santa Ana as a cruel man.  The Battle of San Jacinto turned the tide and as a result Texas claimed its independence.
The Mormon immigration also presented, with a brief history of the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith.  This concludes with the Mormons digging an irrigation ditch and planting potatoes. 
The reprehensible treatment of the Cherokee, and the other Eastern tribes that were removed to the West, and followed The Trail of Tears is also presented.  This is a sad episode in our history supervised by Andrew Jackson.  
The program concludes with a brief explanation of the Mexican American War in California (but was mostly fought in Mexico.)  We do see General Vallejo, but the story of the Bear Flag Revolt is not told very well.  However this fulfilled Polk's goal that the United States extend from one coast to the other.

Tuesday, May 14, 2013

The Death of John Wayne, Down Winder

I had always thought that John Wayne's cigarette habit lead to his getting lung cancer, and his death.   However there may be more to the story.  I came across something today which pointed to a possible different cause of the cancer.  I was looking at information on the actress Susan Hayward, and found this quote.  "Was diagnosed with brain cancer, allegedly the result of being exposed to dangerous radioactive toxins on location in Utah while making The Conqueror (1956). All the leads John Wayne, Agnes Moorehead, John Hoyt, Pedro Armendáriz, Hayward and the director Dick Powell died of cancer. The case is still a scandal.
I had never heard of this particular incident, although I knew Saint George was part of the down wind area, and there is a large cancer center there now as a result.  

I found this quote in a website called "The Strait Dope." frecil Adams:
I'm horrified to have to report this, John, but your girlfriend's claim is only slightly exaggerated. Of the 220 persons who worked on The Conqueror on location in Utah in 1955, 91 had contracted cancer as of the early 1980s and 46 died of it, including stars John Wayne, Susan Hayward, and Agnes Moorehead, and director Dick Powell. Experts say under ordinary circumstances only 30 people out of a group of that size should have gotten cancer. The cause? No one can say for sure, but many attribute the cancers to radioactive fallout from U.S. atom bomb tests in nearby Nevada. ...
The movie was shot in the canyonlands around the Utah town of St. George. Filming was chaotic. The actors suffered in 120 degree heat, a black panther attempted to take a bite out of Susan Hayward, and a flash flood at one point just missed wiping out everybody. But the worst didn't become apparent until long afterward. In 1953, the military had tested 11 atomic bombs at Yucca Flats, Nevada, which resulted in immense clouds of fallout floating downwind. Much of the deadly dust funneled into Snow Canyon, Utah, where a lot of The Conqueror was shot. The actors and crew were exposed to the stuff for 13 weeks, no doubt inhaling a fair amount of it in the process, and Hughes later shipped 60 tons of hot dirt back to Hollywood to use on a set for retakes, thus making things even worse.
Many people involved in the production knew about the radiation (there's a picture of Wayne himself operating a Geiger counter during the filming), but no one took the threat seriously at the time. Thirty years later, however, half the residents of St. George had contracted cancer, and veterans of the production began to realize they were in trouble. Actor Pedro Armendariz developed cancer of the kidney only four years after the movie was completed, and later shot himself when he learned his condition was terminal.
Howard Hughes was said to have felt "guilty as hell" about the whole affair, although as far as I can tell it never occurred to anyone to sue him. For various reasons he withdrew The Conqueror from circulation, and for years thereafter the only person who saw it was Hughes himself, who screened it night after night during his paranoid last years.
Wikipedia gives this version when talking about the film "The Conquerer"
The exterior scenes were shot on location near St. George, Utah, 137 miles (220 km) downwind of the United States government's Nevada National Security Site. In 1953, extensive above-ground nuclear weapons testing occurred at the test site, as part of Operation Upshot-Knothole. The cast and crew spent many difficult weeks on location, and in addition Hughes later shipped 60 tons of dirt back to Hollywood in order to match the Utah terrain and lend verisimilitude to studio re-shoots.  The filmmakers knew about the nuclear tests but the federal government reassured residents that the tests caused no hazard to public health.
Director Dick Powell died of cancer in January 1963, seven years after the film's release. Pedro Armendáriz was diagnosed with kidney cancer in 1960, and committed suicide in 1963 after he learned his condition had become terminal. Hayward, Wayne, and Moorehead all died of cancer in the 1970s. Cast member actor John Hoyt died of lung cancer in 1991. Skeptics point to other factors such as the wide use of tobacco — Wayne and Moorehead in particular were heavy smokers. The cast and crew totaled 220 people. By 1981, 91 of them had developed some form of cancer and 46 had died of the disease. Several of Wayne and Hayward's relatives also had cancer scares as well after visiting the set. Michael Wayne developed skin cancer, his brother Patrick had a benign tumor removed from his breast and Hayward's son Tim Barker had a benign tumor removed from his mouth.
Dr. Robert Pendleton, professor of biology at the University of Utah, stated, "With these numbers, this case could qualify as an epidemic. The connection between fallout radiation and cancer in individual cases has been practically impossible to prove conclusively. But in a group this size you'd expect only 30-some cancers to develop. With 91, I think the tie-in to their exposure on the set of The Conqueror would hold up in a court of law." Indeed, several cast and crew members, as well as relatives of those who died, considered suing the government for negligence, claiming it knew more about the hazards in the area than it let on.

Monday, May 13, 2013

Movie Review: Ken Burns: The West: The People

This is the first of eight in this series directed by Stephen Ives and produced by Ken Burns.  It was shown on PBS in 1996 and is available through instant Netflix.  This episode presents the Native peoples of the West, and their early contact with White men.  It then concludes with the Lewis and Clark Expedition.  I likes it look at Native Americans.  Native American narrators counter act the idealic myth of Native Americans.  They did some things right, but were often at war with each other.  Many tribes held honor in warlike characteristics, taking coup.  It talks about the introduction of the horse, which only made these conflicts more prevalent.  Now they had something of value to steal, but war parties could roam a greater territory.  The other myth is that the White people purposefully killed the Native Americans with disease.  True that the Native peoples had no resistance to the new germs, resulting in four or five different pandemics amongst the Native people.  However the disease usually traveled from Native American group to another after it was first introduced.  The population of the Native Americans was devastated as a result, even before the arrival of the White people.
The movie portrays the arrival of the Spanish, first from the south.  It was many years after their conquest of Mexico, that the ventured into California with the mission system which got its start in 1776.  There were a series of 14 missions, which not only provided a fort to the Spanish interest, but were used to educate, inculcate and control the Native population.  If the Natives tried to leave, the were hunted by soldiers and brought back.  It was noted that the health of the Native population deteriorated after they became attached to the mission.
The Lewis and Clark expedition was a romantic trip, which almost ended in failure and death of the party, had not the run into the Shoshone brother of Sacajawea.  The were able to obtains horses from him, to make it over the mountains.  They were again almost emaciated, but met the Nez Perce who set them on their way again, allowing them to chop down five trees for canoes, with which they were able to make it to the ocean.

Saturday, May 11, 2013

Book Notes from Will Bagley: Blood of the Prophets.

I found a couple quotes from this book which help to add some depth to Isaac's activity in the "Echo Canyon Affair."  I have not delved deeper in this book, neither do I plan to.  I do not accept him as a historian who looks at facts in a neutral fashion, but as on who tries to make events meet his preconceived ideas.  I refer to this article from FARMS with regards to this.
The quotes:
Bagley, blood of the prophets   
Meanwhile, the Mormons walked a dangerous tightrope.  They worked desperately to stop the army before it could enter the territory even as they tried to avoid igniting a bloody confrontation that would lead to war.  They implemented a defensive strategy based on local geography.  There were two practical ways to get the army into Utah, the first following the main road west through Echo Canyon along the line of present Interstate 80 and the second and longer route going north to the Oregon Trail and Soda Springs and the south along the Bear River.  On both fronts, the Mormons strengthened their defenses.  They fortified Echo Canyon, forty-five miles east of Salt Lake, building crude rock breastworks on top of its steep walls.  They damned the gorge and dug ditches; these improvements might not permit the Saints to drown Johnston’s men like Pharaoh’s army, but they would let the defenders flood the road for several miles.  (Bagley p 180)

By mid-October the Nauvoo Legion had eleven hundred men under arms in the mountains and seven hundred men in reserve in Salt Lake.  Three thousand more troops could be called up to defend the canyon on fifteen hours’ notice.  (Bagley p 182)

Friday, May 10, 2013

Movie Review: Tora, Tora, Tora

This is the 1970 depiction of the attack on Pearl Harbor.  It includes both the depiction from the side of the Americans and the Japanese.  Much of it is with subtitles.  This is a very good movie.  It depicts the failure of the Japanese ambassadors to deliver documents declaring war before the attack was started.  As a result, Japan attacked a country with whom they were attempting to negotiate peace.  This was a major point of President Roosevelt's address the following day. 
This movie does a very good job of explaining the failures of intelligence and other systems of communication to give warnings of the impending attack.  Instead, the telegram message arrives after the attack as it was not marked urgent.  The report from the newly mounted radar equipment is ignored.  The report of a submarine being sunk is down played awaiting confirmation.  It seems people doing routine horse rides and golf games effected their ability to respond.  Tora, Tora, Tora (complete surprise) was achieved as a result.
The film does not portray the stories of individual in the fighting very well, but we do see the USS Arizona blow up and burn, and the USS Nevada make for an escape, and then ground itself so as to not block the channel.
It concludes with the famous line of Japanese Yamamoto, "I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve."

Wednesday, May 8, 2013

Echo Canyon Fortifications

As part of the Utah War men were sent up Echo Canyon to provide a defense.  One the Mormon side were 1100 men.  Echo Canyon was the most logical way to enter Utah.  I have found three websites that give a very good of the preparation of the Mormon militia.

The Echo Canyon Breastworks

The Echo Canyon Breastworks were constructed during the autumn of 1857 under the direction of General Daniel H. Wells, commander of the Mormon Militia. They were set atop high cliffs where they would provide the greatest strategic advantage against possible attack by Johnston's Army during the Utah War (1857-58). This 2500-man force was sent to the Territory by President James Buchanan to silence what was preceived to be a rebellion by the Mormons. The dry masonry walls, constructed of uncut stones, stacked in random courses without mortar, were 1 to 2 feet above ground and 4 to 12 feet in length. These fortifications stretched some 1.2 miles along the narrowest section of Echo Canyon. These Breastworks were part of a larger defnsive network that included plans to dam the creek to force the troops against the canyon wall where the breastworks are located, and large trenches across the canyon to impede the passage of horses and men. More than 1200 men worked together completing the Breastworks on the cliffs in the matter of a few weeks. However, the peaceful resolution of the Utah War in the early summer of 1858 rendered the fortifications unnecessary.

The Narrows

Near here the Mormons built a huge breastwork and a 500-foot-long rifle pit (across the freeway, near the base of the telephone pole line). They also put land mines in this area, made from oak barrels, one-pound cans of powder, and flintlocks.
And they built a big dam here with plans to flood the Narrows and make it difficult or impossible for the army to get through. Pretty tricky.
In all, the Mormons built 14 fortifications in this canyon.

Death Rock

Stop at the end of the guardrail after the Narrows. Here the Mormons dug a trench 10’ deep and 7’ wide to stop the troops’ progress. On the cliff just east of the speed limit sign, you can spot fourfoot- tall rock wall fortifications. The cliff west of the fortifications is called Death Rock. Here a member of the Mormon militia on the ground aimed his rifle at a friend on the cliff, thinking the ball could never go that high. The ball hit his friend in the head, killing him.
The "Echo Fortifications" of the "Mormon Wall"
The "Echo Fortifications" or the "Mormon Wall" was built in 1857 as a line of defense against the U.S. Army led by General Albert S. Johnston, known as Johnston's Army....
Brigham Young sent men into Echo Canyon to build a line of defense and the Nauvoo Legion was sent into Wyoming to ' harass and delay" the army. During their harassment tactics, they set fire to and burned Fort Supply. They drove off several of the horses and mules with the army. Many more of the animals died during the severe winter. However, General Johnston lost only one man, and that was from tetanus.
The fortifications were built along the cliffs of Echo Canyon. Rock fortifications were built among the crevices and dips of the cliffs. Then cedar trees were cut, the ends painted black to look like the bore of a cannon, and placed over the top of the fortifications. At night the men would march around large camp fires to make it seem that there were more men present than there actually were. The extra guns and ammunition were buried to prevent them from being exploded by accident or by enemy fire. The cliffs gave the defenders the advantage of height and better protection.

Monday, May 6, 2013

Movie Review:***^ Fleetwood Mac: Rumours (to mmboe)

This is a documentary of the band Fleetwood Mac during a period after they were joined by two American musicians: Lindsey Buckingham vocals and guitar and Stevie Nicks vocals.  Lindsey was on guitar and Stevie on vocals.  These two brought new energy to the group which already included Mick Fleetwood on drums, John McVie on bass and Christine McVie on keyboard.  This album was born in hardship.  The band had two couples, Stevie and Lindsey and John and Christine.  As they were making the album Rumours, both couples were coming to an end.  Some of the splits were very messy.  John had a very difficult losing Christine, but later realized his behavior had driven her away.  In this environment, it is hard to see how they could make music together.  They would come to the studio and not talk to each other to deal with their pain, but they would make music together.  This album was their most successful, and included their number one single, Dreams.  This song was written by Stevie Nix.  It also included one of my favorite "Go Your Own Way" which Lindsey wrote about his relationship with Stevie.  Christine wrote a popular song "You make Loving Fun" about the lighting director, not her husband.  Another popular song on the album is "Don't Stop" also written by Christine.  It is amazing these people, who really didn't want to be together could make this music.  They drew upon their pain, and put that emotion into their music.  Another force opposing their music was the drug scene.  They could talk about it later after they had become clean, but drugs was a negative influence on the band.
One thing interesting about the movie is the producers showing how different tracks were added which added depth to the music.

Sunday, May 5, 2013

Kirtland Temple Dedication: The Pentecostal Season at Kirtland

I discovered that somehow I only read half of the papers of this series about the Kirtland Temple.  I missed some of the earlier happenings, such as the vision given January 21, 1836.  The Priesthood Leadership was in the temple and performing the ordinances of washing and anointings.  It was while they were anointing Joseph Sr. that a vision was opened to Joseph.  In this vision Joseph saw the Celestial Kingdom, and his brother Alvin in that Kingdom.  Joseph wondered how this could be so in light of his passing away before the restoration of the gospel.  And received his answer:
 I saw Father Adam and Abraham; and my father and my mother; my brother Alvin, that has long since slept;

 And marveled how it was that he had obtained an inheritance in that kingdom, seeing that he had departed this life before the Lord had set his hand to gather Israel the second time, and had not been baptized for the remission of sins.

 Thus came the voice of the Lord unto me, saying: All who have died without a knowledge of this gospel, who would have received it if they had been permitted to tarry, shall be heirs of the celestial kingdom of God;

 Also all that shall die henceforth without a knowledge of it, who would have received it with all their hearts, shall be heirs of that kingdom;

 For I, the Lord, will judge all men according to their works, according to the desire of their hearts.

 10 And I also beheld that all children who die before they arrive at the years of accountability are saved in the celestial kingdom of heaven.

This  material includes a chart documenting twelve instances of celestial manifestations from January 17 through May 1 of 1836.  These include the gift of tongues, the sound of a mighty wind, visions, pillar of fire, vision of the Savior, heavenly beings or angels, ministering angels, prophesying, voices of angels and vision of The Father and the son.  Well over a thousand different people participated in these events.  
Many sections of the Doctrine and Covenants come from this period. The dedicatory prayer is section 109.  The Heavenly visitation of Jesus, Moses, Elijah and Elias is documented in section 110. 
 Joseph Smith also saw a vision which reassured him that the traveling apostles would be cared for, for he saw Jesus in their midst watching over them.   

Book Review: Stonewall Jackson: The Good Soldier

 Stonewall Jackson has long been one of my heroes.  This book is written by Allen Tate and was originally published in 1928.  This is a subsequent version published by J.S. Sanders and Company.  I do not love Jackson because of the slave issue, but for the type of person he was.  This story tells something about his youth.  Jackson was an orphan, raised by his uncle.  This scene took place in his youth.

“That’s a nice fish you got there, Tom.  What’ll you take for him?” 
“The fish is sold Colonel Talbott.”
“But I’ll give you a dollar for it.”
“I can’t take it, sir.  The fish is sold to Mr. Kester.”
“Now, Tom,” the Colonel said, “I’ll give you a dollar and a quarter.  Surely he won’t give you more’n that.”
Tom said: “Colonol Talbott, I have an agreement with Mr. Kester to sell him fish of a certain length for fifty cents apiece.  He has taken some too short.  Now he’s going’ to get this big one for fifty cents.”

Thomas Jackson was a man of character.  He did not have a lot of schooling, but had a goal of getting into the West Point.  He was not selected, but when the candidate gave up after a few months, he petitioned to take his place.  He had to study hard to be pass the admittance exams.  He started at the bottom of his class, but steadily climbed.  He wasn't the highest graduate, but most of his classmates agree if they had been in school a year longer Jackson would have been at the top.
After graduating Jackson went shortly to Mexico to participate in the Mexican American War.  By the end of the war Jackson had distinguished himself. 
He became a teacher at the Virginia Military Institute.  He was said to be a poor teacher.  However he excelled at working with the boys in artillery training and outside activities.
As the war began, Jackson decided to side with his state, Virginia.  This motto drove him:
Bull Run was the first major battle.  Jackson under Johnston, had been farther west, but arrived for the battle, after the Federals had pushed the Confederates most of the morning.  A fellow officer warmed him they were to be over run.  Jackson responded, “Then, sir, we will give them the bayonet.”  General Bee's group was falling back.  He uttered the famous line, that became a nickname for a brigade and a general.
General Bee, “Look there at Jackson, standing like a stone wall.  Rally behind the Virginians!”
It is a pleasure to read of the Shenandoah Campaign.  Jackson was so brilliant in taking on three armies, with a total men of 60,000 against his 17,000.  He applied several times the concept of bringing the most men to a particular spot and winning battles in that way.  He was able to defeat the federals in detail over and over, while they were unable to pin him down so they could attack him with greater numbers.
After one battle he was asked how he could respond so calmly in the face of danger. Jackson, “Captain, my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed.  God has fixed the time for my death.  I do not concern myself about that, but to be always ready, no matter when it may overtake me.”
Jackson was a religious man.  He said,  “Every thought should be a prayer.  The attitude of prayer should become a habit.”  When credited with a victory Jackson would say, “No, it has been nothing but the blessing an protection of Providence.”
After Second Bull Run and Antietam Jackson's reputation preceded him.  Northern mothers would discipline their children with, “Keep quiet or Jackson will get you.”
Jackson's men would sing around the campfire:
Come, stack arms, men, pile n the rails;
Stir up the camp-fires bright;
No matter if the canteen fails
We’ll make a roaring night.
Here Shenandoah brawls along,
There lofty Blue Ridge echoes strong,
To swell the Brigade’s roaring song
Of Stonewall Jackson’s way….

Silence!  Ground arms!  Kneel all! Caps off!
Old Blue-Light’s going to pray;
Strangle the fool that dares to scoff.
Attention!  It’s his way!
Appealing from his native sod
In forma pauperis to God,
“Lay bare thine arm—stretch forth the rod,
Amen!”  That’s Stonewall’s way.
Fredericksburg was a high point for the Confederacy.  Jackson made this comment before the battle, when told he should be worried about the enemy.  Jackson, “We shall very soon see if I shall not frighten them.”  After the battle he was asked how to handle the masses of Federals.  Jackson, “Kill them sir!  Kill every man.”
Even though Chancellorsville is Jackson's greatest success, it is a part of the book I most regret.  Jackson lead a flanking attack which was successful.  However he looked for more success, to destroy the Corp in front of him.  To follow up his advantage, Jackson was scouting in front of his troops.  As his group headed back to their lines the were fired upon, and Jackson was wounded.  His left arm was amputated.  As he recuperated Jackson talked about the success of the day.  "Our movement was a great success, the most successful military movement of my life.  But I expect to receive far more credit for it than I deserve....I feel his hand lead me--let us give him the glory."  Due to pneumonia Stonewall Jackson passed away May 10, 1963.  His last words, "Let us cross over the river, and rest in the shade of the trees."
I think this was a turning point in the war.  As Jackson said, everyone's time is numbered.  It was numbered for Jackson to leave the Confederacy.  His absence would be felt in Gettysburg when the Confederacy did not take Cemetery Hill the first day of battle.  Had they taken that hill, likely the results of that battle would have been very different, and consequently very likely the result of the war.  It was past time for slavery to be done, and even though Jackson was not really a supporter of slavery, that may not have happened had he survived.

Saturday, May 4, 2013

Movie Review: ****Pearl Harbor: Legacy of Attack

This movie is a National Geographic documentary of the attack on Pearl Harbor.  It is a 2001 film, or 60-year anniversary of the attack.  This movie tells of the modern day search for a Japanese mini-submarine while also documenting the events of the day.  This movie provides further detail than the book I just read.
The American forces should have been warned an hour before the attack.  They messed in their communication systems at least three times.  Twice there was contact with mini-subs.  Once a periscope sighting and the other actually sinking a sub.  Neither of these reports made it too the right people and no one was alarmed.  Then there was the new radar, which saw the Japanese air armada and hour before they attacked.  However, this report was given to just U.S. planes arriving from the mainland.
I like this movie, because it brings to play the emotion of the day by talking with veterans of the day.  The men, after 60 years, still held the emotions just below the surface.  Many had them buried but came to Pearl to let them out.  The stories they told were horrific.  As too was the story of the Arizona.  The armor piercing bomb set off a magazine of gun powder.  Also the oil (it had just been refueled) ignited creating a fire that melted the skin off of people.  It would burn for three days.  The USS Oklahoma and USS Utah both flipped over and sank.  These three ships were the only vessels lost entirely.  The Utah was already mostly used as a training vessel.  The Oklahoma was refloated, but sank as it was being towed to California.  All of the other 18 ships which were damaged, (6 battleships) were repaired some having to be refloated, and returned to duty.  The USS Pennsylvania was the only battleship, that although damaged, remained in service.  The USS Maryland and Tennessee returned to service in February 1942.  None of the carriers were in port, and as the Naval war became one of carriers, this was most fortunate. 
The people looking for the submarine never did find it.  However, it gave the opportunity to tell the story of the mini-subs; five in all with two-man crews.  None of them returned, although one survived and was taken prisoner.  One mini-sub survived.
The movie also tells the story of Dorie Miller, cook third class.  He had the lowest rank because he was African American.  He helped get his Captain (Mervyn Bennion USS West Virginia) to safety after being the Captain was wounded.  He then manned a machine gun and downed two Japanese aircraft.  He had never fired a machine gun before.  He was awarded the Navy Cross.  The movie indicates he deserved the medal of honor, but his color kept him from this award.
I enjoyed this movie.  It makes you think that those who survived the Battle of Pearl Harbor would now be in their 90s.  I don't know if we have many of these men left.  However there response that day after after changed our world forever.