Sunday, January 26, 2014

Seagull Girls (12-13 YO Young Women)

The Seagull Girls program was part of the curriculum for young women of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.  It was geared towards 12-13 year old young women (Beehives today).  This program was initiated in the 1920s. They used a journal called "Segolia."  It was part of the Primary in the Church.  The young men became involved in Boy Scouts, and were attending meeting in the evening.  The young women of the same age started to have and afternoon program to spark their interest.  The were encouraged to perform service, and they were active in crafts and other similar projects.  I found my mother's book from about 1940.

This gives and idea of what they studied.  It included memorizing and talking about the articles of faith, which is still part of the primary.  It included a short dramatization of the story of the seagulls saving the Saints.  There is a song that goes with this.  It also included study of health, service, attitude, how others might see you, gardening, serving, etc.  When this aged moved on to MIA, the 11 year old girl were called Seagull Girls.

Thursday, January 23, 2014

Mormon Polygamy

The Mormon leadership was introduced to the concept of polygamy as earl as 1831, just a year after the Church was restored.  However it was not practiced for some time.  When it was first practiced, it was not open, and so many rumors circulated about sexual impropriety.  The revelation dealing with plural marriage was recorded in 1843.  Polygamy was announced openly for the first time at the autumn conference of 1852, with Orson Pratt giving a sermon to the conference.  Shortly after this, polygamy was an open doctrine through the church. 
To most of the world, Mormon polygamy was lascivious men seeking a harem.  This could not be further from the truth.  Polygamy was exercised only on the spirit of revelation, and only with permission from ecclesiastical leaders.  Men who entered polygamy did not do so to satisfy sexual urges, but to satisfy religious and spiritual urges.  They were gaining their own personal salvation by entering into polygamy.  It is true, not all peoples are required to obey the law of polygamy.  However, for whatever reason, many of the church were asked to enter into polygamy at this time.  Jacob of the Book of Mormon gives a possible reason for this.  After telling the people they should have only one wife, he explains: Jacob 2:30 For if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people; otherwise they shall hearken unto these things.  Those who entered polygamy, men and women, had as their goad to raise a righteous generation to the Lord.  They were successful in this.
In 1862 the Morrill Act outlawed polygamy in the territories.  However this was not enforced at the time.  Mormons felt this law violated their religious liberties, and was unconstitutional.  However in 1879 the Supreme Court ruled it was constitutional.  In 1882 the Edmunds Act was passed.  This imposed stricter penalties, and initiated "The Raid" as Mormons called it--an onslaught of federal marshals who were seeking polygamist men (or cohabs as they were called) with the goal of putting them in jail, or their being fined.  The marshal received a bounty for every polygamist they were able to bring in.
The law wasn't effective in ending the practice.  Too many men escaped capture.  Those that were captured served their time, and returned folk heroes.  In 1879 the Edmunds Tucker Act went after the church itself.  Although the church had already been attacked and dis-incorporated, this act arranged for the transfer of church property to the church.  This included the temples. 
In 1890 Wilford Woodruff announced the Manifesto, which ended church support for polygamy.  There were still issues to be worked out, but the Church's official position today is that those who practice polygamy are caught off from the church.  There are splinter groups practicing polygamy, but for a church member to practice polygamy would result in their excommunication.

TV Review: ESPN 30 for 30: Survive and Advance: NCAA Championship: North Carolina State: 1983
I started watching this show because I noticed Thurl Bailey was in it.  He is a former Jazz player so this intrigued me.  But then the story grabbed me.  In addition to Thurl Bailey the had Sideney Low and Dereck Whittenburg at guard.  They could shot. Also Lorenzo Charles and Cozell McQueen underneath with Bailey.
Because of an injury to one of their key players, Whittenburg, early in the year, North Carolina State had ten losses.  There was little chance they would make the NCAA tournament without an automatic bid.  They had to win the ACC tournament in order to make it to the NCAA Men's basketball championship in 1983. That would require four consecutive wins against the nations top league.
After their run hey would be known at the cardiac pack.  They played close game after close game.  Wake Forest they beat by one point, North Carolina with Michael Jordan they beat in overtime, and Virginia with Ralph Sampson, a team they hadn't beaten in the Sampson era, they were able to bet by three points and steal the ACC title.
Then began the NCAA tournament.  They were either looking past Pepperdine, or still exhausted from the ACC or something, but with less than a minute to play they found themselves six points behind.  They best foul shooter on their time, missed two one-and-ones to give them a chance to tie, and they won in double overtime.  UNLV was just as hard, but in the end Thurl Bailey outplayed Sidney Green for the victory.  Then an easier game against Utah, but then Virgina again to make the final four.  Again they squeezed out a come-from-behind victory.
In the semi-final they had a bit easier game with Georgia.  But then the final against Houston--Akeem Olajuwon and Clyde Drexler.  The odds did not give North Carolina State much of a chance.  They were not given any kind of a chance.  They slowed Houston by not letting them dunk the ball.  They usually got energy by living off the dunk.  North Carolina State won the first half, but the second half was different.  They went to Akeem again and again, and Houston took a seven point lead.  However Akeem tired playing in therth  altitude, and North Carolina had their chance.  They benefited from a timely missed foul shot, and had the last shot for a victory.  The shot missed, but Lorenzo Charles rebounded and put slammed it through for the victory.  They were called a team of destiny, which survived nine times in a row.
But this movie is more than basketball.  It shows the team reaction to the death of Lorenzo Charles, and the death of Jim Valvano, their coach.  It shows excerpts of a speech by Jim Valvano after he was diagnosed with cancer.

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Mormon Polygamy Bibliography

This is my bibliography of books dealing with Mormon Polygamy:

Arrington, Leonard J., The Great Basin Kingdom, President of the Fellows of Harvard College, 1958; Board of Trustees. University of Illinois, 2005.

Arrington, Leonard J., and Davis Bitton, The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1979.

Bateman, Ronald R., Of Dugouts and Spires: The History of South Jordan, Utah, South Jordan City Corporation, 1998.

Bowman, Matthew, The Mormon People: The Making of an American Faith, Random House, New York, 2012.

Daynes, Kathryn M., More Wives than One: Transformation of the Mormon Marriage System 1840-1910, Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 2001.  Google Books

Embry, Jessie L., Mormon Polygamous Families: Life in the Principal, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1987.

Johnson, Joel Hills, autobiography, topics, Plural Marriage and Families in Early Utah.

Millennial Star 1853 xv

Rupp, Mary Ann Thompson, History of my Grandfather: Isaac John Wardle, DUP Desert Rose Camp, Bannock County, Idaho.

Taylor, P.A.M. “Expectations Westward: The Mormons and the Emigration of their British Converts in the Nineteenth Century, 1965.

Van Wagoner, Richard S., Mormon Polygamy: A History: second edition, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Ut, 1989.

Wardle, Isaac, missionary letters, undated

Wardle, Orrin Dermont, Mary Ann and Isaac John Wardle: A Story of Their Lives, unpublished.

Wardle, Sophia, letters to Isaac while on his mission in England, 1879.

Saturday, January 18, 2014

Jubal Early and the Invasion of Washington

Jubal Early

While the Rebels were penned outside Richmond, Robert E. Lee sent Jubal Early on an invasion of the North, with the hopes of freeing prisoners and capturing Washington is possible.  The Union had poor defense in the Shenandoah Valley, concentrating most of their troops also around the siege of Richmond.  Early easily traveled up the valley with only minor skirmishes.  They crossed the Potamac  in early July, and headed towards Washington. 
On the Union side, John Garrett, president of the U&O Railroad visited General Lew Wallace and informed him something was afoot.  General Wallace, without orders and of his own initiative, decided to investigate.  Wallace developed a defensive position at Monocacy.  This position offered defense of the turnpikes to both Baltimore and Washington.  It was a strong position but he only had 2300 local troops.  Jubal Early had nearly 15,000.  Two brigades of the sixth corp. under Brigadier General James Brewerton Ricketts had left Petersburg a few days before.  They took steamboat and train to reach Wallace before the confederates attacked.  The defending force with the reinforcements was over 5500.  The terrain wasn’t favorable for the attackers, but they did have more artillery.  The defenders were able to force Early’s side to play their cards, tipping their hats to Washington.  They were also able to hold their position most of the day, slowing down Early’s advance to Washington.  When Wallace’s men retreated, Early established headquarters in the town, and the road to Washington was clear.  However Early’s side had been depleted.  The men were exhausted and strung out.  When Early’s men headed to Washington only 8000 infantry were able to answer the call. 
Upon arriving outside Washington, a quick attack may have allowed Early’s troops to capture Fort Stevens.  However Early allowed his men to rest and regroup.  In the meantime the fort was fortified, and the opportunity was lost.  Early’s raid came within site of the Capitol, but they did not have enough strength left to capture it.
General Lew Wallace was initially blamed for the defeat at Monocacy.  However later General Grant praised him for saying Washington with his taking initiative, establishing a defensible position, and slowing the Confederate invasion.

Historical Documentary: The Heavens are Opened: The Docudrama of the Restoration

This short docudrama is produced by Living Scriptures in 1993.  It shows actors portraying the different characters involved in the restoration, with historical narration.  It presents the atmosphere in Palmyra when the first vision took place.  This movie is dated, because it does not show the restored old Smith farmhouse.  It does have the new farmhouse which helped build.  The first vision is one of the most spiritual experiences of God visiting Joseph Smith as a boy.  However the vision of Moroni was much more known to people originally.  Joseph did not record the First Vision until much later. 
This portrayal also takes us through Joseph receiving the Gold Plates, and the beginning parts of the translation.  It shows some of the early hardships, how evil conspiring man, who claimed Joseph was deluded, would still try to steal the gold plates, which they didn't believe he had.  Joseph had to go to great lengths to hide the plates.
However eventually, with the assistance of Oliver Cowdery the work of translation could go forth, an the heavens were further opened and the priesthood was restored and the first baptisms in this dispensation performed.

Friday, January 10, 2014

Centerville Horse DrawnTrains

When the  main rail line went through Newark, (now a part of Fremont, California) they were worried they were being left out.  This was corrected by a branch line.  The branch line was proposed in 1878, and it took until 1882 for the narrow gauge line to be finished.  The Southern Pacific Coast rail would have three passenger runs daily to connect with the train line in Newark.  The unique thing about these trains is that they were not drawn by locomotives, but by horses.  The passenger runs would be one car drawn  by one horse.  There were also cargo trains, which carried more weight and would be pulled by more horses.  The branch hauled 300 tons of freight in 1885, and 5000 tons in 1898.  It hauled produce from the farmer, mostly dried fruit.  Centerville was known for its apricot orchards.  This local branch would serve the people of Centerville for over 30 years, with a horse-drawn train.

Thursday, January 9, 2014

Book Review: Ancient Incas: The Ancient World

This is a book written by Michael Burgan and published by Scholastic. 
The Inca were not the first group of people to live in the Andes, but they are the most well known.  The Inca were those who conquered the previous peoples, and spread out from Cuzco to be the rulers of a large territory extending from Columbia on the North to Argentina in the south.  The rose to power rather quickly, and just as quickly their reign ended, although the people continued but subjugated to the Spanish. 
The Inca began to control the Cuzco valley about 1300 A.D.  Pachakuti’s reign began in 1438.  He was the one who began to extend the empire.  He is attributed as the leader who established Machu Pichu as a resort for royalty.  Subsequent leaders continued to expand the empire.  Unfortunately there was a civil war between two brothers in the early 1500s.  As a result the empire was weakened.  Atawallpa won the civil war, but upon completion of the war he learned of the Spanish who had entered their territory.  Pizarro with about 150 men were intent on conquering the kingdom.  They were few, but they had superior weapons, including canon.  The captured Atawallpa.  When the ruler discovered the desire of the Spanish for gold, he bargained for his life promising a room full of gold for his life.  He delivered the gold, and after getting the gold, the Spanish killed him.  There were other rulers who resisted the Spanish, but for the most part this resistance was unsuccessful.  The Spanish killed the last Inca king in 1572.
The Inca kingdom was established on a system of reciprocity.  The rulers would demand work or taxes, but in tern they would always give something back.  The Spanish did not offer reciprocity.  However they did use Inca leaders to keep the masses happy to a degree.
The Inca Kingdom was actually very advanced.  The used Quinine Bark for treatment of malaria.  The built roads and cities.  They would build temples and buildings without the benefit of mortar, but the joints between blocks would be a perfect match.  Much of the Inca architecture has survived, but often Spanish buildings are built on top, creating walls with an Inca base and Spanish construction above.  No written record has revived of the Incas.  There were many mummies, but these for the most part were destroyed by the Spanish. 
Incan products from which we still benefit today include the potato.  Coco plant is very common in the regions, and from this cocaine is made.  Incan textile are very unique, and Incan style “hoodies” are often seen throughout the world.  The vicuna offers very soft wool, which is highly valued.  The llama was been shipped around the world as a pack animal, with a coarser wool. 
The mountaintop farming of the Inca is unique.  The terraced mountains include a drainage system, and these terraces built long ago are still used today.  The Inca also ate many different tubers, some of which were very nutritious.  There are efforts today to restor some of these crops for their dietary value.

Saturday, January 4, 2014

Book Review: Fussball Welt Meisterschat 1978 (Soccer World Cup, 1978)

This is a book review for a book I have never read, but I have followed the pictures, and the book is crafted in such a way, I can follow every game of the world cup of soccer, 1978.  I was excited to look at this book, even with my deficiency in language because I was in Argentina in 1978.  This marked the only time Argentina has hosted the event, and the first time they won the championship.  I remember the excitement when Fillol grabbed a penalty kick, and when the Argentina side beat Peru 6-0 and thus qualified to play for the championship based on goal differential over Brazil.  
This book starts with the history of the world cup, showing every year to that point.  Although I could not read, I could see the artwork which represented every year.  Then there was a short section on Argentina, which included many pictures of geographic beauty of Argentina, Mar del Plata, Iguazu Falls and the Andes.  Then there are pictus of the opening ceremonies, and then excerpts of every game.  That year there were two rounds of round robin.  The book tends to show more of Germany's games.  In the first round Germany did well and qualified, as did Argentina.  Argentina lost to Italy, but qualified with two wins in their other matches. Italy won all three first round matches.  Peru, Holland and Brazil were some of the other qualifiers.
The next round had Argentina and Brazil were in the same grouping with Poland and Peru.  They tied each other, and both beat Peru and Poland, setting up the heroics with the goal  differential against Peru.  I remember when Argentina beat Peru, and thus qualified for the championship match.  On the other side Germany, Holland and Italy where all in the same group.  Germany faded, and Italy and Holland played Italy in the final match of the round.  Holland came out on top 2-1 and earned the right to play Argentina for the championship. 
The next match was for third, in which Brazil defeated Italy.  (Personal note, I was in Don Torcuato at the time, and the Italian squad housed in Don Torcuato at Hindu Club.  When the bus came by with the team they would stop all the traffic and give them a free lane.  It was exciting to see the bus however. 
The final match then pitted Argentina in the blue and white striped uniforms against Holland in their orange.  Argentina was lead by Ardiles in midfield, and Kempes and Luque were the striker with Fillol in goal.  Argentina won the championship 3-1.  They would not be denied.  It was hard for people to go to work the next day, as they were out partying all night.  There was a great party around the obelisk downtown. 
Of note in this book is the short shorts which nobody wears this day.  The book concludes with a pictorial documentation of all the players and squads.

Historical Movie: ****^ Young Mr. Lincoln

This is a 1939 black and white movie available through instant Netflix.  It is directed by John Ford and Henry Fonda plays M. Lincoln.  This is not the way you would expect a Lincoln movie to go.  Instead this movie touches Lincoln as a man, a fallible, sometimes humorous, melancholy man.  He is truly an enigma.  There are those scenes where he can control a crowd with his wit and humor an courage; then there are those times when he talks down about himself.  This movie is truly a masterpiece.  Henry Fonda does a superb job.  I learned things about Abraham Lincoln I didn't know.  He likely had a love when he was young, who succumbed to typhoid.  He was melancholy, and subject to bouts of depression.  This movie also presents Lincoln as a lawyer, and it was as spellbinding as Perry Mason.  I recommend this movie.  Here is a longer review of this comparing it to another Lincoln movie.

Thursday, January 2, 2014

Book Review: 50 Facts About Cats

This is a little book written by Brue Larkin.  It is geared towards the second to third grade reader.  However it presents some facts about cats I did not know.  A few example, cats have more bones than people, 230 to 206.  However the comparison may not be totally fair as a cat has over twenty bones in its tail at we people do not have tails.  The tail helps with balance.  Cats are descended from North African wildcats.   The female is called a queen, the male a tomcat, the baby a kitten and the group of kittens is a litter.  Cats have four back toes and five front.  However on front tow never touches the ground, but is used for grooming and capturing prey.  Cats purr more often than when they are happy.  They sometimes purr when they are hurt or frightened.  Cats see six times better than people at night.  Cats can run 31 miles per hour.  (No wonder if the cat doesn’t want to be caught, you don’t have a chance.)  Cats use 50 muscles to jump, leap and sprint.  A cat will mark his territory on you by rubbing his face against you.