Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Moche (of Peru) Burials Uncovered

by Christopher B. Donnan photographs Kenneth Garret and art by Christopher A. Klein, National Geographic, March 2001.
The Moche predate the Inca by about 1000 years.  They inhabited the northern coast of Peru.  This article tells of the discovery of three tombs, whole and intact.  This find is rare in this area where people have been looting for 300 years.  The 105 foot pyramid at Dos Cabezas had been virtually destroyed by Conquistadores looking for gold.  It has also been pock marked by those seeking artifacts.  However these tombs were left undisturbed, and provide a wealth of information about the people.  This included a ceramic death mask.  It also included miniature tombs, a model of the actual tombs.   There were artistic potteries of animals which are very fascinating.
There are mysteries surrounding the Moche people, where did they come form and where did they go.  The inhabited one of the most arid regions on earth, and did so with irrigation methods.  They were there form about 100 a.d to 800 a.d.  They appear to have had classes, as one of the tombs honors someone of some import.  The people found appear to have been related.  They are unique in that the seem larger than other Moche people who were generally short.

Monday, September 11, 2017

National Geographic - George W. Bush: The 9/11 Interview



This video is fascinating.  It is an interview with President Bush about ten years after the event of 9/11.  His insight, from that of the President is intriguing.  With the third and fourth planes he determined America was at war; and accepted the fact that his would be a war presidency.  That first day started with the President being flown away, and ended after he had gotten back to Washington, and was whisked to the bunker when they thought there was an attack on the White House.  Turned out a friendly plane just had the wrong transmitter.  This also shows a few days after 9/11.  Addresses to the American people, visiting the Pentagon, and visiting New York.

Saturday, September 9, 2017

Book Review: Post Dates: A Chronology of Intriguing Event in the Mails and Philately

by Kenneth A. Wood, Van Dahl Publications, Albany, OR, 1985.
This is a book of much more history about post and stamps than you would ever want to know.  It starts from 4000 BC where some type of post is known among the Chinese people.  There were forms of message delivery in India as well.  Most early message delivery involved rulers.  It wasn't until much later that message delivery was offered to the general public.
The Penney Black was issued in 1840.  Before this time there were stamps used to verify the payment of postage.  The first of these were in England, 1680.  The first American stamps were issued in 1847. This book also contains tidbits on specific mail routes.  The includes overland stage routes and the Pony Express, where light weighted men were recruited to fun the mail on horseback.  It also includes many international routes.

Thursday, September 7, 2017

National Parks: Article Review

July 1979 edition of National Geographic was dedicated to the National Parks.  I love to look of pictures of National Parks, to places I've been and places I hope to go.  In 1979 the National Park Service managed 306 parks and monuments.  They now manage over 400, of which about 80 are National Parks.  Ulysses Grant signed into law the bill that established Yellowstone National Park in 1872.  The national Park Service was established in 1916.  National Parks represent the most historical, the most beautiful, the most significant of our nation.  In other words the best of the best.  I love looking at the pictures.  This magazine is a keeper.

Sunday, September 3, 2017

Book Review: It Happened in Northern California

It Happened in Northern California: Remarkable Events that Shaped History, by Erin H. Turner, Twodot, Guilford, CT, 2016.
This book presents 33 short stories of history in Northern California.  It lists them chronologically, although some stories take place over a period of time. 
Among other stories it includes, the first siting of California by non-Native Americans.  Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo lead the expedition, which never did make landfall because the tides and winds were not favorable.  However Cabrillo would not survive the trip.  He had previously fallen on rocks in the San Diego area and broken his arm.  He continued on, but eventually gangrene set in and killed him.  His first-mate made a final attempt to make it to shore, but eventually his men insisted it was not to be and the returned to Mexico.
He tells of an early Native American story teller.
A romance between a Russian trader and the magistrate at San Francisco Bay; Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov and Maria de la Concepcion Arguello y Morage.  In this the guy does not get the girl, but intends to.
The Bear Flag Revolt of 1846.
He tells the bravery of Patty Reed of the Donner Party in 1847.
The discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill by James Marshall.
The story of Joaquin Murieta, who was considered a bandit by some.  By others he was compared to Robin Hood, fighting against injustice after the Mexican American War and many Hispanics were forced off their land.  However Murieta became a cold blooded killed.  In his wrath he killed many.  He could gather 80 men or more, people who had been offended by the Whites, and they would take out their vengeance.  This included killing Chinese.  The reward offered for his capture eventually bore fruit.  He was killed and his head taken as proof, as well as the hand of the three-fingered bandit, his side-kick.  Although displayed, his wife said it was not him.  She said Joaquin Murieta had escaped to Mexico. 
The story of Ulysses Grant in California before the Civil War.
The mail delivered by Snowshoe Thompson.
Start of the wine making business in Sonoma,
Jessie Benton Fremont confronting those who would take her property.  She was the wife of John C. Fremont.
A terrible massacre of Indians.  The responsible parties were never identified.
Mary Ellen Pleasant, and African American business woman had an early incident similar to that of Rosa Parks. 
Emperor Norton, who was treated as royalty because he had a delusion that he was.
The take of Captain Jack, chief of the Modocs, who refused to be relocated, and the had an effective stronghold in lava caves.
The story of Caruso during the San Francisco earthquake.  Damage would have been much less had not the fires started. 
The story of Ishi, last of the Yahi, a small tribe of Yana Indians.
The fire that destroy the dream of Jack London, and in a real way also took his will to live, and he passed away not long after.
Sarah Winchester and her mystery house in San Jose, when the tools did not go silent until after her death.
The state of Jefferson; proposed from parts of Northern California and Southern Oregon, which may have really happened if not for the advent of WWII which took everyone’s focus.
Japanese internment.  Those who wouldn't say yes to the loyalty question were kept at Tule Lake. 
The Olympics in Squaw Valley, 0960.
Bodega Bay and the birds,
Haight Ashbury summer of love in San Francisco, which came out of the protest movement.
The Native American take over at Alcatraz.
How a computer club developed into Apple, McIntosh and the iphones.
An art project you could see from space.
The mayor and supervisor in San Francisco murdered, George Moscone nd Harvey Milk.
And the World Series being stopped by an earthquake.

I think there are a couple left out, such as the explosion during WWII, the train robbery in Manteca, the story of New Hope, The Brooklyn, or the history of Drawbridge in the San Francisco Bay, The Battle between Mexican forces and Native Americans close the Riverbank.  I will be using this post as a link for some of these stories. 

Saturday, August 26, 2017

ESPN Documentary:Jordan Rides the Bus: 30 for 30


I have often wondered why Michael Jordan gave up a year of play basketball for baseball.  He really wasn’t that good at baseball, because it was something he had not been doing every day.  After a year of playing ball, riding the bus, he was getting better.  He played right field, and played in the Autumn League.  This was a league for the best of double AA.   He really started to come into his stride.  He stole bases, fielded ok.  And brought his batting average up to 250.  It is possible for Michael Jordan to have made the majors in a couple more years if he continued to improve.  However a threatened baseball strike loomed large, and Jordan likely would have been in the middle.  He decided to return to basketball instead. 
An interesting point of Jordan’s baseball career centers around the murder of his father.  His father was murdered in a botched robbery.  Jordan’s father always wanted Michael to play baseball, and so he did.


Sunday, August 20, 2017

Article Review: Finding Their Navajo Way

There is a very good article in the Utah State magazine Spring 2017 written by John DeVilbiss about a couple who lived the Indian Placement life.  This program provided an education to Native American children by placing them in the homes of church members where opportunities may be better than on the reservation.  For a period of time, the church sponsored this program and many people started their education this way.  In this case, the couple Teresa and Curtis Frazier left the reservation, living with their placement families.  As a result they struggle with their native language.  It also put them between two worlds, which can be a hard place to be.  However they have both been able to find a balance, and now work in providing educational opportunities to others.  However, those others do not have to leave their homes, as they work in Blanding, Utah for the Utah State extension.
Curtis mentions that he felt the church accomplished their goal of providing opportunities that were not available.  The children were well-fed and clothed.  Many thrived better in this type of environment, than at the Indian boarding schools available.  However the program created a separation between the children and their families with sometimes negative consequences.  In this case there was a positive result.  In their case they are able to love both families.

Monday, August 7, 2017

Blunders of WWII: Hitler's Luftwaffe

At the beginning of the war, the Luftwaffe was the most modern air force in  the world.  They had investing many resources, and because of the Treaty of Versailles, all of the planes were newly built and modern, rather than old relics.  However, they failed their country on several occasions.  The fist major failure was their inability to annihilate the British and Allies at Dunkirk.  Much of the expeditionary force was able to make it back to England.  During the Battle of Britain, again the Luftwaffe failed to control the Royal Air Force, and consequently the invasion of England could not take place.  The industrial machine of Germany was not on a war footing.  Consequently resources were often scarce, and shared with other branches of the military.  Even within the Luftwaffe there was competition for resources.  ground troops, including parachute and anti aircraft guns too at least ten percent of the resources.  Consequently there were never enough resources.  This was especially felt in Russia.  After the invasion of Russia, the German resources were spread more and more thinly.  And when the Russians pushed the Germans back, the Russian industrial complex was out of reach of German bombers.  A great lack of the Luftwaffe was a good long-range bomber as the relied on dive bombing.  This lack crippled them in the end.  Experienced air pilots also became more scarce.  German pilots flew sortie after sortie until they were shot down.  Replacements lacked resources for training.  Consequently, as the war continued, the German pilots had less experience and training.  This became even more acute after an Allied bomber attack on German fuel supplies.  There was not fuel to spare for training.
The one think which could have evened the field for the Luftwaffe was the development of the jet.  The Germans had developed jet planes, which could fly 100 mph faster than any planes on the allied side.  However, Hitler wanted these planes to be fighter bombers, which delayed production, and so they had hardly no effect on the war.

Great Blunders of WWII: The Pilot Who Bombed London

The first bombing of London was a mistake, but it would trigger policy on both sides which would result in the loss of millions of civilians.  At the beginning of the war, the mass bombing of cities was a great fear, and both sides avoided it, although they prepared for it.  The built air raid shelters, issued gas masks and prepared defenses.  The initial policies held that aircraft would only bomb military targets.
However the Nazis did bomb Warsaw, after the Poles declared that they would defend the city to the last.  The city was surrendered after all utilities were destroyed.  The British bombers, after finding their planes were more readily shot down during the day, began bombing at night.  Navigation issues lead to bombs missing military sites and causing civilian casualties.
Another Nazi attack against a city was that of Rotterdam in Holland.  This bombing took place after the surrender was too slow.
However, full scale bombing on both sides did not take place until after an accidental bombing in London.  Both sides had escalated bombing against targets closer and closer to population centers.
Early in August of 1940 that Luftwaffe was commanded to go after the British RAF.  This would take German planes over population centers.  Hitler ordered there there should be no terror bombing.  This was a period of intense air battles.  Germans had strength in numbers, while the British were closer to home and able to stay over the battle area longer.  The German's changed tactics by having bombers attack at night.  They were hoping to stretch the British air defenses.  However, the germans had problems with night navigation.  Some of the planes became confused.  At least one dropped its bombs anyway, hitting civilians in London.  Nine civilians were killed.
The British retaliated, and then things escalated from there.  Berlin was an immediate target for the RAF.  Before the end of the war there were fire bombings of major population centers.

Was Daniel Boone a Traitor? from Unsolved Mysteries


Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Nobler Books, New York,1997.
This refers to an incident surrounding Boonesborough, Kentucky.  This was a fort founded by Daniel Boone.  However at the height of the Revolutionary War, Daniel Boone surrendered the fort to Native Americans.  It first happened he was taken prisoner.  He then negotiated a sort of peace if Boone turned over the men looking for salt who were with him.  He did so, and in captivity was adopted by a Chief Blackfish of the Shawnee.   Then with the British and the Shawnee he arranged for turning over Fort Boonesborough.  This he did.  If you were to look at this you would think Boone was a traitor; however he had his own explanation.  A peace party met outside the fort.  The Shawnee laid siege.  However this did not last long and they gave up.  He contended his actions were for the benefit of the people.  The Shawnee outnumbered them and they would have been killed without his intervention.   He had gained time for them to prepare their defense.  He was brought to trial for treason; but the jury found in favor of Daniel Boone.  What has become known since is that the wife of Daniel Boone was a Tory.  Daniel Boone for sure was torn between loyalties.  After the war there was no British influence, but Daniel Boone was no longer welcome in the town he founded. 

Sunday, August 6, 2017

Documentary Review: I Am Jane Doe

This movie brings to my awareness a problem we have had here in the United States; that of sex trafficking of young girls.  This trafficking has been made easier by internet laws, the Federal Communications Decency Act of 1996.  This law allows for third parties to publish information on a host, and the host is not liable for the content, even if they know that laws are often broken.  The courts have been unwilling to resolve the problem, and congress has been very slow to change the law.  In the case of Backpage.com, it appears that the hosting website would coach those advertising to place their ads in such a way as to evade the law, and be harder to trace.  The most common place for marketing of young girls in on this site.  However, the site has taken down their adult services site where most of this traffic took place.  I looked at the site briefly.  It appears this traffic has moved to the massage category and that the promotion of sex with pimped girl (enslaved girls) is going on.  The very first ad is for "New Young Girls."  There is language in these ads which those familiar with the scene know, which points them to what they want.  Some of this behavior illegal. and is exploiting our children.
This documentary presents the cases of several young woman, some abducted, some brought into prostitution when they ran away.  Most are controlled with drugs.  All were advertised on this website, and made it so the young women could be raped multiple times every day.  There is a story on the internet of a young woman in Chicago who did not survive.  She was the victim of murder by a sex client.  We must stand with our children, and demand that any trafficking of sex over the internet be stopped.
I watched this on instant Netflix.

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Flyover Nation: You Can’t Run a Country You’ve Never Been To by Dana Loesch, Sentinel, New York, 2016.


This is a few from a Conservative woman from Missouri (She was very liberal when young but slowly converted to conservatism after giving birth to a son).  Many of the topics are those which worry people from the heartland of the country.  Things for which the heartland traditionally takes heat form elitists, as they are thought to be uneducated.  Some of these include: abortion, Black Lives Matter vs Lives Matter, gun control, having a network of family to support you, media bias, and just the attitude of many politicians towards the heartland of the country.  I enjoyed this read, and she expressed many things in a good way.  

Documentary Review: Amanda Knox

This is a documentary with the main character of a murder investigation participating as narrator.  However the film includes the evidence against her, as well as the reason she won upon appeal.  This deal with a murder in Italy.  It was assumed Amanda and her boyfriend murdered Amanda's room mate Meredith Kercher as part of some kind of sex games.  Meredith was from England.  Twice she and her boy friend were convicted, and twice it was overturned upon appeal.  A third person was convicted.  His prints were all over the room.  They talked of some DNA evidence, but this was eventually thrown out.  This is a very good review.  Amanda uses the F' word too much.  And in the end, if she wanted to maintain her anonymity she would not have made this documentary.  Of course as a look at the credits, she s not listed as director or producer.  She was interviewed several times on camera.  I most like this movie as I can listen to the Italian, and read the subtitles.  I am surprised how much I can follow along.

Thursday, August 3, 2017

Documentary Review: Great Blunders of WWII: Hitlers's Declaration of War on the United States

Adolf Hitler was persuaded by Japan to declare war on the United States after Pearl Harbor.  However there was no reason to have done so according to treaty.  The Germans has pledged to defend Japan if Japan were attacked.  That was not the case here.  However Hitler was quick to declare war against the United States.  Perhaps Hitler was hoping Japan would tie the Soviets down in the West.  This did not happen.  By doing so, United States entered the war in Europe.  Winston Churchill had been negotiating for this for some time, as England could not win the war on her own.  Hitler  with his declaration resolved this problem for Churchill.  The United States put is industrial might, as well as armed forces to defeating Germany and Japan.

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Documentary Review: 30 30 Fernando Nation

This ESPN documentary tells the story of Fernando Valenzuela, Mexican man who had a dream of pitching in major league baseball; and was actually doing so at the age of 18 when he was rookie of the year and the Cy Young Award winner.  He rode his screw ball to pitch in the World Series in the third game, which game they won, and went on to become champions.  This movie is presented over the backdrop of the construction of Dodger Stadium in Chavez Canyon, which was the home of many Mexican Americans.  They were evicted to make way for the stadium.  In 1981,  the Dodgers made amends with the Latino community with Fernando being part of the team, and the opening day starter.  Fernando had other career high lights, including a no-hitter in 1990; but nothing was like that first year.  His career record was 173-153 with and ERA of 3.54 and his career spanned 17 years.  His first ten years were with the Dodgers, and then several teams after this including the Jalisco Charros in Mexico.  He retired in 1997  but still plays independent ball or Mexican ball at times.

Friday, July 21, 2017

Documentary Review: 30 for 30 June 17th, 1994

Directory Brett Morgan; ESPN Documentary on the arrest of O.J. Simpson for the murders of Nicole Simpson and Ron Goldman.  This documentary using only footage from news sources, and covers the hysteria over O.J. Simpson.  It deals with other sports events happening at the same time; the retirement of Arnold Palmer, the New York Rangers winning the Stanley Cup, and the New York Knicks winning game five of the NBA Finals.  But the big news was O.J. Simpson in his Bronco being chased by more and more policemen and 20 media helicopters.  People lined the freeway to wave to Simpson.  He reportedly had a gun to his head.  After he stopped it took a long time for police to convince him to throw the gun away.  Crazy good job of editing and putting this together.

Tuesday, July 4, 2017

What Did Reagan Know of Iran-Contra

Unsolved Mysteries of American History, by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble, New York, 1997.

What Did Reagan Know of Iran-Contra.  The bottom line is President Reagan was blamed for setting an atmosphere where Iran-Contra took place, but not with actually knowing about any specific plans.  Congress had passed laws forbidding the financing of the Contra Rebels in Nicaragua.  Reagan looked to them as fighters against Communism.  He wanted funding to continue, but did not give any specifics, and his hands were tied by congress.  Lawrence Walsh was appointed the independent counsel.  The resulted in criminal charges against fourteen people.  These were crimes like taking an illegal gratuity, withholding evidence etc.  By the end, Wash’s investigation looked much like a witch hunt, as he tried to go after the Secretaries of Defense and State, Casper Weinberger and George Schultz.  President Reagan said he simply could not remember much about the negotiations with Iran to sell arms, to fund the Contras.  Perhaps this was the early stages of Alzheimer’s.

What Caused the Salem Witch-Hunt?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History, by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble, New York, 1997.
The Salem Witch Trials as they are known, resulted in twenty executions, fourteen woman.  Also five people died while imprisoned, including two children.  What Caused the Salem Witch-Hunt?  This is a question with many answers.  What is known for sure is that an area was effected with mass hysteria.  Some made accusations to free themselves.  It started when two girls had attacks which were not contributed to epilepsy.  Their Black servant who dabbled in voo-doo provided an excellent excuse, which then resulted in more and more accusations.  Upwards of fifty persons spent time in prison.  There was a preexisting feud going on between the Putnams and the Porters.  The Putnams being the second wife, and her son, who inherited a very large estate, which the descendants of the first wife thought should belong to them.  Joseph Putnam, of the second wife, married a bride of considerable wealth, a Porter.  The Putnams were among the accusers.  The daughter of Thomas Putnam was one of those who had fits blamed on witchcraft.  The Porters and their friends were often named as witches.  However the Porter side of the family remained rich, while the Putnam side remained poor, and most of them moved away.  In addition to the feud, there were other motives.  The magistrate who carried out the arrests benefited greatly.  One of the priest, who wasn’t fully drawn to the idea, prospered when a rival priest was accused.  The judges also may have been in on the profiteering.   

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

The German Blunder at Dunkirk



The German invasion of Western Europe was militarily stupendous.  they scored a significant success.  First Poland was forced to surrender.  the British and French supported Poland, but only from a distance.  they were not prepared for an offensive campaign.  Hitler wanted to attack France and Britain, but was convinced to wait, and develop a new plan for invasion.  This would include invasion of Holland and Denmark.  Another group would keep the Allies occupied at the Maginot Line, while a third group, with most of the armor would attack to the north.  This group attacked through the forest and hills of Ardennes.  This area was such an unlikely place to attack, it was not well defended.  This group flanked the Allied forces, and cut them off.  They then turned north to confront them directly.  The Allied forces were now surrounded on three sides, and trapped in a pocket around Dunkirk.  The Belgians indicated they were close to surrender.  The British commander called for an evacuation by sea.  The Panzers stopped outside Dunkirk to regroup for the final battle.  However Hitler gave the job of finishing off the British to the Luftwaffe.  Hermann Gohring had requested this honor to prove the might of German air power.  The evacuation rescued hundreds of thousands.  The final blow could not be administered from the air.  The British did suffer heavy losses, but not near as disastrous as it could have been.  Many ships were sunk, including private ships and merchant ships which were pushed into action.  Eventually the rescue was limited to night time action.  The Royal Air Force extracted a toll form the Luftwaffe.  The Allied losses included over 170 aircraft and over 200 ships.  Also 50,000 prisoners.  Total in men killed included almost 70,000 British, and over 300,000 total casualties.  338,000 men were evacuated, including 140,000 non British.
By the numbers, this was  a tremendous German victory.  However the British army lived on to fight another day.  Had Hitler deployed the Panzers, the result would have been even more lopsided.

Sunday, May 28, 2017

Native American Art and Artifacts at San Juan Bautista

Intricate basket for fishing or for storage
arrow head
basketry
grinding rock mortar and pestle
tools
tule boat
mortar

duck decoy
dream catcher (this was in the store rather than the museum

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Documentary: Oklahoma City (2017)

This is a PBS documentary, which covers the theme of how conservative thought lead to the Oklahoma City bombing, or at least it seems like that is the intent of the film.  In this aspect, I think it failed to a degree.  It says the attitude prompted Timothy McVeigh to act, although he was not an actual member of any of the groups, such as paramilitary, or NeoNazi.  It does make a case that he was angry about how things were going.  He had actually been present at WACO.  However casting blame unto those who never even knew McVeigh would be a stretch.
What this documentary does well is tell the stories of those who were victims of the bombing.  these are innocent people, and in many cases children, because the day care in the Alfred P. Murrah building was destroyed by the bomb which McVeigh detonated April 19, 1995.

Saturday, May 13, 2017

Documentary: Prelude to War

As Frank Capra looked for a way to make a war related movie about "Why we Fight" he came upon the idea of using Nazi propaganda pieces and turn them around.  The Germans had made many propaganda pieces using speeches by Adolf Hitler.  There were also Benito Mussolini speeches available as well as Emperor Yamamoto.  Capra showed the beginning of the war being 1941 when Japan invaded Manchuria.  He explained how the powers hoped to eventually claim the entire world.  He did this using maps with the flag of different groups overlaid.  With that as the basis for this film, Capra was able to make a fantastic propaganda piece, "Prelude to War" which explained to the American people why we were fighting the war.  The attitude of the American people quickly changed, from avoiding the war, to being fully engaged.
Capra won an Academy Award for this film.  It was used as a training film for new recruits.  It was released in 1942,

Monday, May 8, 2017

Great Blunders of WWII: Death at Stalingrad 9



Stalingrad become Hitler's greatest blunder, after he took more and more control of the military.  the initial drive into Russia went well, but fell short at the gates of Moscow.  Hitler sacked his commander in chief, and took over that roll himself.  The next year, the Hitler offensive headed south, to the oilfields and Stalingrad.  The move south was divided in two group, Group A and Group B.  The initial offensive was to Stalingrad, and then Army Group A to the south.  When the Russians withdrew rather than facing the onslaught, Hitler took even more control.  The effort, with the armor was focused on the move south.  They were able to take the first goals, but the Russians destroyed many of the oilfields in the area.  however, without most of their armor, Hitler ordered a move against Stalingrad.  Without the tanks, progress was slow.  The move south eventually stalled as the supply lines were too long, and they were far away from their air support.
In Stalingrad, the germans defended the city at all costs.  A counterattack finally surrounded the forces there.  However Hitler ordered them to remain, with the goal of their being resupplied from the air.  It was impossible to get adequate supplies.  Hitler put his efforts into a rescue effort to resupply.  However the Russians kept up their offensive against Army Group B.  The relief operation stalled before they could reach them; however the commander thought they could break out and meet the relief operation.  However they followed Hitler's original orders to stay put.  However shortly the Russian efforts took the airfields supplying Stalingrad, and the desperate measure to drop supplies form the air proved inadequate.  What became known as the Stalingrad Pocket was doomed. Almost one hundred thousand were killed.  They finally surrendered, and another almost one hundred thousand were marched into Russia.  Only about five thousand would ever return.
Stalingrad was a major turning point on the Eastern Front.  The Russians would be on the offensive from this point on.

Monday, April 17, 2017

Great Blunders of WWII: Japan's Mistakes at Midway 7



This is one of a series of movies about blunders made in WWII.  This deals with the Japanese blunders at Midway.  The idea of Midway was a very good idea.  The Americans would have to defend Midway, and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was hoping to eliminate the rest of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific.  However his superiors decided to eXpand the operation.  They added an attack on the Aleutians, with the logic the U.S. fleet would have to defend and be more scattered.  The other addition was a sea attack on Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea.  In this way they could threaten Australia.  they committed three carriers to this operation.  Even though in the Battle of Coral Sea which took place as a result, they damaged Yorktown and sunk Lexington, for their own part, one carrier was sunk, another badly damaged, and a third lost most of its planes.  This left only four carriers for Midway.  The Japanese assumed Yorktown had been sunk.  The U.S. had a repaired Yorktown available, as well as Enterprise and Hornet.  Yamamoto felt these carriers were in Hawaii, but had not confirmed this.  However, due to cracking of the Japanese code system, the U.S. knew that Midway was the major focus of the Japanese attack.  The carriers were ready and waiting.  The U.S. also had a landing strip and planes on Midway Island, including high flying B-17 bombers.  The first wave against Midway caused considerable damage, but the run way remained serviceable, and many planes were spared.  As the Japanese prepared for a second assault against Midway, his ships were attacked, and three carriers sunk.  The fourth counter-attacked against Yorktown, causing serious damage.  Eventually Yorktown was sunk by submarine torpedoes.  This fourth carrier was itself counter attacked and destroyed.  The end result, over three thousand Japanese dead, four carriers, and one cruisers sunk, another cruiser damaged.  On the American side over three hundred dead, one carrier lost and one destroyer sunk.

Memphis Belle: The Story Of A Flying Fortress (1944)



This is the WWII documentary from William Wyler.  This film documented the day in the life of B-17 bombers, and particularly the Memphis Belle, which completed its 25th and last bombing mission.  After this mission, the crew was retired to teaching other aviators, and the plane was also retired and is in the Smithsonian today.

Friday, April 14, 2017

Battlefield: S1 E3: The battle of Midway

The most decisive Naval battle of WWII changed the course of the war.  This is a very good day by day and blow by blow description of the battle, including the battle of Coral Sea which took place shortly before, and had influence on the Battle of Midway.  A single day changed the course of the war, and Japan went from the offense to defense.
Akagi
Kaga
Soryu
Hiryu
Yorktown
Carriers lost at the Battle of Midway.  the Japanese lost over 3000 men, and all the planes and most of the pilots involved.  The pilots were mostly killed in their planes on the decks of the carriers.  The United States lost over 300 men, and two thirds of the aircraft involved.

Thursday, April 13, 2017

The Battle of Midway — A John Ford Documentary Masterpiece



This is the documentary movie John Ford made from the footage he took during the battle of Midway.  He selected a raised area on Midway Island from which to film, and was actually wounded in the endeavour.  You can see in the film where this happens with the close bombing.  the most important news was what came at the end, the report of the turn in the war as Japan lost four carriers.  Though early in the war, this proved to be a turning point.  

Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Documentary Review: Five Came Back (2017)

This is a made for Netflix documentary.  It presents the stories of five movie makers, big Hollywood directors, who took time away from their Hollywood careers, to serve in the military and document the war.  they could be called propagandists.  A part of their effort was to encourage the buying of war bonds.  On occasion, the documentaries were released for presentation in theaters.  However most often they were used as shorts before movies.
The five directors chronicled are William Wyler, John Huston, John Ford, George Stevens and Frank Capra.
Capra provided a very big service.  He director "Why we Fight" films.  this included "Prelude to War" which at first was not allowed to be shown because it was felt to be too negative towards the Germans.  However it was shown by Capra to win an Oscar.  Capra also produced training films for the service men.  The first movie he made after the war is "Its a  Wonderful Life" a box office disaster, but a classic in the long run.
John Huston was first a writer, but then started directing to better control his work.  He had made "Maltese Falcon" before the war.  The biggest movie he made during the war was "Let There Be Light" a look at the effects of war fatigue on soldiers.  Today we call this PTSD.  He also worked on documenting the war in the Aleutian Islands.  His first film after the war was "Treasure of the Sierra Madre."
John Ford was already a big name director before the war.  He had made "Stage Coach," "Young Mr. Lincoln" and :The Grapes of Wrath."  His first success during the war was "The Battle of Midway," in which he was wounded.  This movie won as Oscar as well.  He was with the troops in North Africa and also made a film there.  He went back and made a movie about Pearl Harbor as well.  After the war, his first film was "They Were Expendable" telling the story of the PT Boats.
George Stevens was a director of comedies before the war.  However he never went back to this.  As part of his duties, he documented the atrocities in "Nazi Concentration Camps."  Much of his work was used in the war crimes trials after the war.  His most important work after the war was "Diary of Anne Frank."
William Wyler won the Oscar for best director for his last film before the war.  Mrs. Miniver told the story of a British family and the effects the war was having on them.  By the time it was released the Americans were at war as well.  During the war he documented the Memphis Belle in "The Memphis Belle: The Story of a Flying Fortress."  He remained close to the men of the Memphis Belle his entire life.  After the war his first film was "The Best years of Our Lives" which dealt with Post traumatic Stress of three veterans, including one who lost his hands.  This movie won several Oscars and was a box office success.  He would later make the movie Ben Hur.
Commentators included Steven Spielberg and Guillermo Del Toro.
These men all risked their lives during the war.  They were some of the over 5000 movie people who joined the war effort.  they were all changed for their experience.  It was a sacrifice to leave their careers, but after returning their movie making seemed even better.

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Sagwitch, Shoshone Chieftan, Mormon Elder 1822-1887


This brief article is from Legacy: International Society: Daughters of Utah Pioneers
few People know or remember that some very important Shoshone Native American men were prominent leaders in the early days of the Mormon Church.
Chief Sagwitch of the Northwestern Shoshone tribe lived on the lower Bear River and was wounded at the Bear River Massacre January 29, 1863.  Many of his family were killed.  Nevertheless, during the years immediately following the massacre, the chief and his band came to know the Mormon residents of Brigham City and he joined the Mormon Church under the tutelage of Mormon missionary George Washington Hill and followed the steps of the Priesthood to become an Elder.
Sagwitch homesteaded land near Portage, Utah and also at Washakie, a small Mormon-sponsored Indian community in Box Elder County.  It is recorded that he helped build the Temple in Logan, Utah.  He experienced the traditional Indian patterns of hunting and gathering to the adjustment of adapting successfully to both EuroAmerican and religious influences.
His descendant included Moroni Timbimboo, the first native American Bishop in the Mormon Church and Bruce Parry, for many years director of Utah's Bureau of Indian Affairs.
The DUP Camp in Paradise, Utah was named in honor of Chief Sagwitch as well as two mountain peaks and a basin between the Cache and Ogden valleys.

Saturday, April 8, 2017

Book review: Nettie's Trip South

Nettie's Trip South by Ann Turner, illustrated by Ronald Himler, Alladin Paperbacks,  New York, 1987.
This is actual a book of fiction, describing a trip South just before the Cicil War.  The author says this of the book, "This story is inspired by my great grandmother Henrietta
'a [Nettie's] diary of her trip South, taken in 1859 when she was a young woman.  there, she witnessed a slave auction and returned home a committed abolitionist.  As she said in her own words, 'All I have heard of slaver seemed unreal until now that I see for myself.'"
The story of this book is a young woman, traveling South with her older brother and sister, just before the Civil.  Her brother was determined to see conditions, and to see a slave auction.  It appears he was writing a paper.  It describes the auction, and the slaves being required to jump when told to do so.  They slaves did not have last names, just their first.  Families meant nothing to the overseer, so without a last name they could removed easily from relatives.  The story tells of two siblings being separated.  It also confronts the idea of three fifths of a person according to the constitution, because all the people for full people.
The story tells of the profound effect on the author, who now has nightmares.
Slavery was a nightmare for our country, and lead to inevitable results to get rid of it.

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Article Review: Exotic WWI Spy Mata Hari

Utah State Magazine Spring 2017, article by Janelle Hyatt.
This article is based on an interview with Tammy Proctor, who was recently interviewed as an expert for a featured BBC documentary about Mata Hari, the spy that was executed by the French during WWI.  The French government said her actions lead to the deaths of thousands of men, as many as 750,000 by some acounts.  Mata Hari was a woman who had survived childhood abuse, and then spousal abuse.  She was left on her own with no means of support, and she needed money to get her who she had been forced to leave when she left her husband.   She was of Dutch descent living in France.  She finally found she could make a living as an exotic dancer.  However when the WWI all her assets were frozen, because she was Dutch.  Then she became a spy.  Mata Hari was a double agent, a spy for the French who was also spying for the Germans.  The legend has her as a seductress, who was able to get information from men when they were the most vulnerable, in bed.  However Proctor contends she wasn't even a very good spy.  She was not responsible for so much destruction. The myth around her actual does a disservice to those women who were actual spies during the time.   MI-5 actually employed 800 female spies during the war.  I may well have been the Mata Hari was set up with fabricated evidence.  She was shot on October 15, 1917.  She refused a blindfold.

Monday, April 3, 2017

Chapter Review: Did Pocahontas Save John Smith?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1997.
About the only source that Pocahontas saved John Smith from her father, Powhatan, comes from John Smith himself.  There are no other first party corroborating statements.  The statement wasn't released until some years after the events.  there was a great age difference between Smith and Pocahontas.  However Smith never claimed the relationship was romantic.  It seems Pocahontas helped many with her influence and generosity.  However parts the the story don't make sense.  The author draws the conclusion that to Smith, maybe things appeared like Pocahontas saved him, while instead it may have been part of an adoption into the tribe ritual.  That Smith needed a sponsor.  This would have been a traditional death and rebirth ritual.  Smith would have felt intimidated by Powhatan, and grateful to Pocahontas.  
As for me, I accept the story as written by Smith, because I like the story, and I don't want to take away from the bravery of Pocahontas. 
 

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Chapter Review: What Happened to the Lost Colony of Roanoke?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1997.
The Roanoke colonist predated the Jamestown colony of British settlers in America.  Roanoke Island is off the coast of North Carolina.  This was 20 years before the Jamestown.  the governor of the colony, John White, only stayed a short time.  His daughter gave birth to the first English baby born in America, Virginia Dare.  He then returned to England to negotiate for more supplies and support.  He returned three years later, and the colony had disappeared.  they left carved in a tree the word, Croatan.  Perhaps the left and joined the Native American on Croatoan Island.  However they had been told to go north, and the island was south.  
Sir Walter raleigh was the money behind the project.  However he fell out of favor with the queen, and was off on other adventures.  the colony was somewhat forgotten.  
There in fact was even an earlier colony by two years.  However this colony faded into the mist as well.  However this colony was rescued just in time.  they had alienated the locals, and were short on food.  Sir Walter raleigh appeared with ships, and took them aboard, making room by leaving some slaves and Indians who had been rescued from the Spanish.  Those left also disappeared.  
With regards to the lost colony, it is generally felt the majority went north, and were killed when they allied themselves with the Chesapeake Indians.  This group was wiped out by Powhatan.  A for the few who had been left to guard the original settlement, it is believed the did go to Croatoan and mixed in with the Native Americans.  
the governor of the colony, though not much of a governor (he left) he was an artist, and consequently we have from him the first pictures by and Englishman of Native Americans.  these were painted in 1585.

Friday, March 31, 2017

Biography: Cesar Chavez

I am home from work today for Cesar Chavez Day.  I started wondering, what is so significant about the day.  It is a Santa Clara County and California State holiday.
March 31 is the day of the birth of Cesar Chavez.  he was born in Arizona.  The family ended in California because of the depression.  Cesar Chavez worked in the fields with his family.  there was considerable hardship, and as a teenager Cesar and his sister would take people to the doctor as needed.  Otherwise the workers were without medical care.
Chavez with Dolores Huerta was instrumental in the organization of farm labor.  Their union became the United Farm Worker Union.  they employed many nonviolent initiatives for change.  Among this was a self imposed fast of 20 days.  The tactics also included boycotting of food, including the salad bowl boycott and the boycott of grapes.  At its highest the union boasted 50,000 members.  After his death the numbers decreased rapidly to only 15,000 a few years later.  During the Chavez years in the union they were active in fighting against immigration which tends to lower farm wages.  Chavez' actions were instrumental in fighting for civil and labor rights.  His motto, "Si se puede" was adopted by the Obama campaign.  (most of this article gleaned from Wikipedia)


Thursday, March 30, 2017

Documentary Review: Beary Tales (2013)

This is the story of a photographer who raises a couple of bear cubs in the Bohemian forest.  It provides some insights into the bears, and how cubs grow.  These two cubs, a boy and a girl have a special relationship with each other.  they also form a bond with the photographer; but not as close as their relationship with each other.  It is fun to watch the bear learn.  The photographer has to teach them how to forage for edible things in the woods, and not to eat the poisonous ones.  And then he has to take them to where they can become independent, although they always remember him.

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Chapter Review: Was Rachel Jackson a Bigamist?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1997.
This chapter concludes that this is a true statement to a degree.  This was an accusation made while Jackson was running for president.  In the day when Andrew Jackson and Rachel Jackson became husband and wife laws were different.  Rachel was married previous, and to get a divorce took and act of Congress, at least state house.  Rachel's first husband was abusive, but there was not a way for her to get out.  Andrew Jackson took up as her defender.  And it appears they had become intimate long before any divorce could be granted, which reportedly the Jacksons thought had happened but hadn't.  At any rate, the friends of the Jackson, and the country folk where they lived had no problem with it.  The relationship between Rachel and Andrew was considered legitimate.  
Andrew won the election, but Rachel never served as first lady as she passed away before Andrew Jackson took over as president.  

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Chapter Review: How Did Cortez Conquer the Aztecs?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1997.
This chapter gives a pretty concise of the two-year struggle in which the Aztecs were defeated.  Hernan Cortez took his men on a non-sanctioned mission to Mexico to take the Aztec treasure.  On the way to the Aztec capitol city, Tenochtitlan, a city built in the middle of a lake, the gather allies from amongst those native indigenous people who were controlled by the Aztec, but historically were enemies.  Sometimes this involved small skirmishes, but by the time the Spanish force of 600 men arrived, they had numerous allies supporting them.  Add to this the confusion Montezuma had over the appearance of White forces.  The were confused because they had a legend about a White god returning to take his place as ruler.  This was enough to give Cortez a break, and the took Montezuma captive.  Controlling the ruler, the Spanish controlled the Aztecs, until the Aztecs became disillusioned with Montezuma.  They confronted him, and Montezuma attempted to calm him.  Instead the Aztecs started firing at him, and whether Montezuma was killed by the Aztecs, or the Spanish is not known, but he was of no further use to the Aztecs.  However without some kind of control, the Spanish were forced out of the city, suffering heavy casualties.  Many of the Spanish drowned with their pockets heavy with gold.  As they retreated they were met with another convoy of Spanish, sent by the Cuban governor to capture Cortez.  However Cortez and his men were able to kill the leader and instantly had many new recruits to continue their battle against the Aztecs.  They returned, and with their allies were able to take the city again, fighting house to house.  
This chapter does not mention the story about burning the boats presented by Andy Andrews.  In other study it appears this story is basically true.  However their are mixed ideas with regards to motive.  Cortez did spend considerable time with his men on the beach motivating them.  However some of the men were determine to return to Cuba as the new the mission was illegitimate.  It is not necessary that the boats were burned, but they were destroyed.  


Friday, March 24, 2017

Chapter Review: Where Did Columbus Land?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1997.
Some people, with their made up history, have accused Columbus as the culprit of everything bad thing that has happened over the past 500+ years, which is just nonsense.  Columbus was a man who embarked on a quest for a different route to India, and was willing to risk his reputation and life on that quest.   However, a more important question that where he landed, is what he thought about what he had found.  There are several islands that claim to be the spot of the first landing.  They are all in the Bahamas, and the historical record is so old, it is open to interpretation today.  Columbus never returned to the original landing site.  However a more interesting question is at what point did Columbus realize he had found something other than a route to India?  The debate here ranges from, Columbus always though he had found islands off the coast of India, v. his intention all along was to discover a new world.  What is certain is that two cultures collided, which collision caused terrible hardship for the Native Americans.

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Chapter Review: Why Did Benedict Arnold Turn Traitor?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1997.
In the case of Benedict Arnold the primary motivation was greed.  Arnold had other grievances.  In fact he had been court marshaled, but cleared on most counts, however he had begun communicating with the British before this.  He also felt slighted in many instances.  He had directed several American military successes before joining the British.  However his major reason for turning was money.  He had a new wife he needed to support, and offered to surrender West Point to the British for money.   However the British officer with whom he was communicating was found out, and in turn so was Arnold.  The officer was hung, but Arnold escaped, leading troops for the British and eventually returning to England.  George Washington had given orders that Arnold was to be hung if caught.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Tales of the Wild West: Campfire Stories

Tales of the Wild West Vol. 12: Campfire Stories, by Rick Steber, illustrations by Don Gray, Bonanza Publishing, Prineville, Oregon, 1994.
This is just that, very short stories, for telling around the campfire.  Each story is one page only.  I am sure a lot of these stories are nothing more than imagination, however this little book also includes a half dozen Indian legends, and some of the stories are based on fact, giving different experiences that happened to people as they settled the West.  It is weighted to the Northwest, which is where the book was published.  It tells how man got fire, with coyote tricking Skookum (evil spirits) to get it from them.  It explains why the coyote has white on its tail, shy the squirrel's tail is crooked, and the frog has no tail.  Later it talks about Skookum lake, which later became Devil's lake when renamed.  There are also stories about the Oregon trail, and hardships on the way, as well as hardships faced by early settlers.  There is a military story, of a man who was thought dead in crossing the Isthmus of Panama, but a young lady saw he was alive and his life was saved just short of burial.  Another story where it appears that someone wasn't quite saved, and was buried alive.  (that kind of story just gives me the creeps; I can't stand the thought of being enclosed in such a way.)
I enjoy short stories, and these are pretty good, and they keep moving.

Sunday, March 19, 2017

Chapter Review: Why did the Anasazi Abandon their Cities?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble, New York, 1997.
The Anasazi are the ancient people who were responsible for the building of the sites in Chaco Canyon, as well as Mesa Verde where they constructed cliff dwellings.  Pueblo Bonito was the largest apartment building in North America until the late 1800s.  It was five stories high.  However durable these buildings, the people abandoned these sites, Chaco Canyon by 1200, and the Mesa Verde sites by 1300.  So where did the people go?  You may thin they were conquered by another nation, but there is no evidence of a great battle or warfare. Weather conditions may have been a contributing factor.  Tree ring studies does show evidence of a drought.  However the answer may lie in a combination of factors.   Sometimes we think of the Anasazi as a distinct people that disappeared.  In fact they merged with other peoples.  The Anasazi live on in the Pueblo peoples of Arizona and New Mexico.

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Chapter Review: Did Leif Ericsson Discover America?

Unsolved Mysteries of American History by Paul Aron, Barnes and Noble, New York, 1997.
I think we all pretty much accept that the Vikings visited North America in their travels.   Eric the Red had discovered Greenland, giving it a hopeful name in order to attract people to settle.  However Biarni Heriulfson first made it to North America, but was very unimpressed.  He did mention his find to Leif Ericsson, who was impressed with his story.  He went to establish the first non Native American settlement there and called in Vinland.  It wasn't until 1964 that evidence of an actual village was discovered.   This discovery included domestic items, which indicated their must have been women in the settlement.  However it didn't last long.  The natives were too inhospitable.  The mystery remains however that the site discovered is too far north for grapes to grow, thus belying the name of the city.  It could have been a rouse to encourage settlement, or the climate may have been more conducive to grapes at a past period, or there could be another site farther south.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Book Review: Trickle Down Tyranny: Crushing Obama's Dream of the Socialist States of America

Trickle Down Tyranny: Crushing Obama's Dream of the Socialist States of America by Michael Savage, William Marrow, New York, 2012.
This is a Michael Savage book written before Obama won his second term.  There are things about that Romney Obama election where Savage was right on.  The media did everything they could to destroy Romney, including the debate moderator taking Obama's side in the middle of a debate, to the media making a big thing of Romney's religion, to some king of disclosure about something Romney said in a close door meeting.  This process goes on and on.  We seek it now despite Trump's victory, every day main stream media is harping about something else.  They should let it go already.  We need to rebuild our country from the past eight years, where the only way to get the unemployment rolls down was to increase the number of people who were disabled.  Savage points out that 50 percent of Americans are now on some kind of welfare program.  At the same time, our military has never been more vulnerable.  For the past eight years our friends have become our enemies and our enemies have become the people we negotiate with, but to who's benefit.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

ESPN 30 for 30: Brave in the Attempt (History of Special Olympics)

This is the history of Special Olympics, and the story of Eunice Shriver.  Eunice Shriver was the sister of John F. Kennedy.  Unknown to most is that her older sister, Rosemary Kennedy, was a woman with special needs.  As such she took up the cause of those with special needs.  And in doing so,  started an international movement, and brought the cause of these people into the public light.  She started with a day camp on her back lawn in 1962 where children with intellectual disability could attend.  These children were usually hidden, and now they were welcomed.  This was a world of shame for these people.
When her brother was in the White House, she lobbied for these people.  The first legislation recognizing them was signed by her brother and committed federal funding to people with disabilities.
1968 was the first Special Olympics.  this was only a couple months after the assassination of her brother Bobby Kennedy.  This was held in Chicago, where there were over 1000 participants, and not that many spectators.  The Special Olympians quote at each meet: "Let me win. But if I cannot win, let me be brave in the attempt." 

When Special Olympics was featured on Wide World of Sports in 1973, the movement gained a broader audience, as many were introduced for the first time.  This was initially a mostly American event, but is now truly international.  Many celebrities, and many more volunteers have lead to this success.

Saturday, March 4, 2017

PBS NOVA Bombing Hitler's Supergun New Documentary 2016



There are same things in this presentation that I didn't know which makes it very interesting.  I wasn't even aware of a V-3 super-gun program.  This really was some gun.  It was pointed directly to London and that was the target.  It had five shafts, with five barrels in each shaft.  That would have been 25 barrels hurling projectiles towards London.  The effect could have been devastating.  The guns did not rely on just one explosion but a series of explosions to hurl the shell.  They had a cannon that could reach England, but not London.  In a big way, Hitler was relying on this weapon to turn the war.  After the Allies discover the existence of the bunkers, with a barrel, they set on a bombing program, which was not effective.  Two other programs were devised, one by England and the other by The United States.  The United State program involved the first use of a drone.  The drone used early television and remote control.  It required a pilot and copilot to take off, and get the plane in motion.  Joe Kennedy, the brother of John Kennedy was the pilot.  His father Joe Sr.  had groomed him to be the first Catholic President.  The English plan involved the first use of buster busting bombs.  This attack actually took place a month before the American attack.  The aerial photos after the attack showed that there were big holes in the bunker, but no one could see inside the bunker.  SO the American plan went through.  However there was a fault with the remote arming devise in the American plane that caused it to explode prematurely.  Joe Kennedy and his copilot were lost.  When the Allies finally reached the area where the bunker was located, the discovered that the buster bunker bombs had caused irreparable damage.

Monday, February 27, 2017

Book Review: Let's Read About...Martin Luther King, Jr.

Let's Read About martin Luther King, Jr. by Courtney Baker, Illustrated by Cornelius Van Wright and Ying-Hwa Hu, Scholistic, New York, 2001.
This is a very good book about the childhood of Martin Luther King, and the things that would effect him in later life.  It explains the circumstances of his developing a dream that children would be able to live together, no matter the color of their skin.