Thursday, June 30, 2016

Black Indian Biographies: Paul Cuffe: New England Trader

Paul Cuffe in silhouette
At one point Paul Cuffe was the richest man of color in the United States.  His father was a former slave who was born in Africa, perhaps in Ghana.  His mother was a Wampanoag Indian from Martha’s Vineyard.  His father came as a slave to Massachusetts, and likely worked as a servant.  He was able to earn extra and buy his freedom, and married Ruth Moses.  The Massasoit were the Indians that greeted the Pilgrims, first in friendship, and eventually in war as the newcomers wanted more and more land. 
Paul Cuffe was the seventh of ten children.  He was always interested in the sea as they lived close, and went to sea young as a mariner.  He could see the ship owners made more than the seamen, so he and his brother built a ship.  He began to make good money, and invested in other ships.  By his early twenties he was doing well, and took a wife of the Massasoit as well, Alice Pequit.  By prospering, Cuffe proved someone of African American or Native American heritage could succeed as well as someone of White descent.  Cuffe became interested in many community causes.  He built a school on his own land, providing education for his kids in a setting free from persecution.  Local children were also welcome to attend.  Cuffe thought of himself as both black and Indian, but as he grew older, he took an active role in African American and slavery issues.  He was of the Quaker faith, and with them he was an abolitionist.  He paid to establish a colony of ex-slaves in Sierra Leone in Freetown.  He made several trips there.    He also supported people financially who were moving back to Africa. 

Excerpts from Proud Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans, William Loren Katz and Paula A. Franklin, Antheneum Books for Young Readers, New York, 1993.

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Book Review: Sagwitch: Shoshone Chieftain, Mormon Elder 1822-1887

Sagwitch: Shoshone Chieftan, Mormon Elder, Scott R. Christensen, Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah, 1999.
I found the story of Sagwitch to be fascinating.  This book gave a better idea of the traditional migration of the Shoshone, from West in the autumn chasing the pine nut, and then wintering generally in Bear River Valley for Sagwitch's group, North for salmon and other game in the Spring, and then East to join Washakie in the buffalo hunt in the summer.  Sagwitch was never a violent man, but somehow, his people crossed the ire of the military stationed in Salt Lake City.  This had to do not only with conflict in Cache Valley, but was also retribution for events perpetrated by Chief Pocatello and his men on the Oregon Trail.  However there had been some incidents in  Cache Valley, with stealing of cattle, a shot out up near Providence Canyon with Bear Hunter and his men, and other incidents.  Colonel Patrick Connor lead the American forces at the Bear River Massacre.  He was not interested in negotiation, but went strait to carrying out his mission of death and punishment.  He caught the Shoshone poorly prepared, although they had made some breastworks.  Chief Sanpitch, Sagwitch and Bear Hunter were wintering just north of Preston, close to the Bear River.  Sagwitch and Sanpitch would both survive, Bear Hunter would not.  Connor had orders to arrest these three men.  However he reported they had all been killed.  However Sangwitch and Sanpitch had been wounded, but escaped.  Sanpitch came upon the ruins after the attack.  One of his wives had been killed.  Two of his sons were wounded.  He left an infant son on the field, with the hope he would be taken in by a White family.  Another son he gave to the Warner family, and he was raised by them.  It was a difficult season, as their food stuffs had been destroyed, as well as their shelter.  Sagwitch had been shot twice in the hand.
He slowly recovered.  However he was taken prisoner a couple years later, and while under army protection he was shot by a citizen.  He again recovered.  At this time he became friendly with the Mormons.  He embraced the Mormon  faith, to the point he became and Elder and visited the Endowment House in Salt Lake.  He  did considerable work for his ancestors.  George Washington Hill was called as a missionary to the Indians.  He helped them establish a city.  The first tried a place without good water, then a place close to Corinne, Utah.  The residents of Corinne took a negative stance, and spread rumors that the Mormons were colluding with the Indians to kill them all.  They were forced to move, and they started again along the Malad River, farther north.  Rumors continued to flow out of Corinne, but people could see they were  unfounded.  The also established a community, Washakie in the same Bear River Valley area.
Many Mormon missionaries were called to help the native Americans.  Some performed their job well, and others not so well.  They worked with the Native Americans at making houses and improving the land to fulfill their Homesteading contract.  They also dug a canal to bring water.  The community prospered slowly, but was hampered by fire, grasshoppers and soil conditions.  Sagwitch actually took a homestead in a new community called Washakie, near the original homestead site.  He also had a residence at Fort Hall.  there was a period of many converts among the native Americans, which riled the BIA agents and the residents of Corinne.  The Mormons had to walk a tight rope in their dealings with the Indians.
The Shoshone were great supporters of the Mormon Temple in Logan.  They spent many hours in working on the stucco of the building's interior.  Sagwitch was one of those who worked.  He also worked in the temple performing vicarious work for his ancestors.
Sagwitch, in a way, succumbed in the end to persecution.  Isaac Zundel, their bishop and missionary at the time, was pursued because of his practice of polygamy.  Sagwitch accompanied him into the mountains and they planned to live in tents to avoid the federal marshals.  He contracted pneumonia and died trying to get to medical help at Washakie.
From Sagwitch's posterity come many people firm in the faith.  The  first Native American bishop was his grandson.  He also had a descendant who served a mission to Bulgaria.

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

American Biography: Wild Bill Hickok

Wild Bill Hickok was born in Illinois in 1837.  His family were part of the Underground Railroad, helping fleeing black slaves.  They provided shelter and transportation.  They had cubby holes under the floor boards where slaves could hide.  Hickok road with the Jayhawkers during the trouble in Kansas.He had many nicknames, which didn't stick.  He first met a younger William Cody (Buffalo Bill) during this time, helping him fight off some bullies.  Hickok was always standing up for the underdog.
While Hickok was recovering from a bear attack, he helped a Pony Express Station manager named Horace Wellman.  David McCanles showed up insisting on his land back for lack of payments.  McCanles was a general bully towards Hickok, and called him "Duck Bill."  Either Wellman or Hickok shot him through the chest from inside the station.  McCanles' men rushed the station, and Hickok shot another, who was finished by Wellman's wife with her sharpened hoe.  Hickok wounded the third, and pursued him into the woods and finished him off.  Hickok and Wellman went to trial, and claimed they were defending company property.  The judge agreed.
From there Hickok joined the Civil War, serving as a scout and spy for the Union.  From there he began serving as a scout for the military.  Some calvary men where beating up a barkeeper and Hickok intervened.  Two of the soldiers began to draw on him, and Hickok was quicker so the stopped mid-draw.  The crowd of men dispersed.  The Eastern newspapers, and dime novels always seemed to dramatized Hickok's exploits, and seemed to always enhance them here and there.
Hickok then went into law.  His skills seemed very adept at this.  He started by transporting some deserters for the military.  He then was employed by Hays City.  This was a lawless town.  He would always swing the doors wide open when entering a saloon.  This would afford him a good view of the entire room, and also discover if anyone was hiding behind the door.  This is where he developed the habit to always sit with his back to a wall.  Hickok was not one to draw easily, but he was the fastest and most accurate.  As a law man he killed a score of men.  He was also attacked unprovoked and in a surprise fashion on several occasions.  There was one kill that would haunt him.  He had moved to Abilene where he was the sheriff.  He was investigating some gunshots.  Phil Coe was a gambler with a grudge towards Hickok.  When Hickok came alone, having told his deputy he would handle things, Coe saw his chance.  He fired two shots, and they missed.  Hickok did not miss.  Then suddenly from the corner of his eye, he saw someone approaching with a gun.  He shot and killed his deputy.  Hickok took this hard, and started drinking heavier.  He wasn't long after that he left Abilene.  He was part of the Buffalo Bill Cody show after this, but did not enjoy gambling.  He then settled on policing a new community, Deadwood, a mining town.  He was interested in gambling, and the only chair available was not against the wall.  He asked others to trade him, but they refused.  The result was Jack McCall, who had lost in gambling to Hickok the day before, shot Hickok in the back of the head killing him instantly.  The trial in Deadwood found him not guilty as McCall said he was avenging his brother's death.  (There is no evidence he even had a brother.)  However he was retried by the territory, and Deadwood was not a city at the time.  He was found guilty and hung.

Excerpts from Bill O'Reilly's Legends and Lies by David Fisher.

Monday, June 27, 2016

Book review: Native American Scientists

Capstone Short Biographies: Native American Scientists: Fred Begay, Wilfred F. Denetclaw Jr., Frank C. Dukepoo, Clifton Poodry, Jerrel Yakel, by Jetty st. John, Capstone Press, Mankato, MN 1996.
This book may be a bit too young for my taste, but I was interested in the topic.  The five scientist presented all have some similarities, a struggle to get where they are.  Often this struggle was against their own culture, but more often against their own attitude towards education.  Wilfred F. Detenclaw Jr. had to overcome a cultural issue in his education, he was assigned to dissect a cat.  However disturbing a dead animal is taboo to the Navajo, because it will effect the animal's spirit.  Only after talking to a medicine man did he feel comfortable going ahead with the assign, because he had to learn about animals and how they work.  He is a Navajo zoologist.
Frank C. Dukepoo was the victim of a bully.  However he is Hopi, a peaceful people so he didn't fight back, but got even in the classroom.  He received five scholarships, but wasted them away with his lifestyle of non-study.  He then didn't know what to do, but a mento advised him to earn the money he needed and start over.  That he did, and he now teacher biology at a university.
Fred Begay is mixed heritage, Ute and navajo.  He didn't attend school until he was nine, a government school, where he wasn't allowed to use his language or ceremonies, nor go home for two years.  He served in the Korean War flying on rescue missions.  He became a physicists and works at the Los Alamos Lab in New Mexico.  He is working on fusion.
Clifton Poodry is a member of the Seneca Tribe who was thinking of becoming a teacher, but he became so interested in genetics this became his life long pursuit.  He is a bioligist.  He works with Native American youth on pursuing science.
Jerrel Yakel is a California Indian from the Luiseno tribe.  His 8th grade science teacher sparked his interest in science when he was challenged to collect 50 bugs.  He is now a neuroscientist and studies the brain and how it works.  These studies lead to the development of medications for mental and other disorders.

Sunday, June 26, 2016

Documentary Review: Civil War 360: Fight for Freedom

This is a presentation from Smithsonian Channel and this episode features Dennis Haysbert telling not only of his ancestors, but the history of slavery, and the Civil War from the perspective of an African American.  This presentation tells many different stories.  Among other things it tells where the term "Sold down the River" came from.  Slaves were considered property, not people.  In fact, the value of slaves was about $3 billion, which was an incredible amount of money at the time, worth more than all the real estate of the area.  "Being sold down the river" referred to being sold south, where the work was usually more grueling, the life expectancy much shorter, and families almost always separated.  It was against the law to teach a slave to read.  The thought was if a slave could read then he would want more.  A great fear of those living in the South was a slave revolt.  Nat Turner had actually lead a revolt, and 50 citizens were killed.  Of course 200 blacks were killed in retribution, but the South lived in fear.  Many of the African Americans risked so much.  Harriet Tubman risked her own self, spying for the Union, and directing the Union men on some occasions in their pursuit of the enemy.  This movie points out how the Ciivil War was sandwiched between two illegal events, the attack on Harpers Ferry, and the assassination of President Lincoln.  John Wilkes Booth was at the first event, and perpetrated the second.
This movie of course also talked about how General Ben Butler first refused to return runaway slaves, saying they were contraband of war.  In the end President Lincoln backed him.  It describes the Emancipation Proclamation, and lastly talks about Black troops.  The risk for Black troops was much greater, because the Confederacy did not take them prisoner, but killed them.  A Black Soldier had to be better than the rest.  There was prejudice against them.  They received less pay for the same work.

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Book Review: Squanto: Friend of the Pilgrims


Squanto: Friend of the Pilgrims, Clyde Robert Bulla, pictures by Peter Burchard, Scholastic Inc., New York, 1954.
I found this book and excellent read.  It is a youth book, and historical fiction as it tells the story of Squanto.  However I really found myself engaged with the character Squanto and the things that happened to him.  I had heard he was kidnapped, and it was a good read to see how that happened.  He was sold into slavery, and rescued by some Catholic Priests.  Originally he had gone to England willingly.  He enjoyed his time there, and found it difficult to get home.  When he finally did, his people had all died from disease.  His community had been where the Pilgrims settled, so he moved in with the pilgrims and taught them about how to survive in the new world.  His ability to speak English was a great asset.

Friday, June 24, 2016

American Biography: Daniel Boone


Daniel Boone is one of America’s first folk heroes.  He was determined to make his life away from civilization.  He pioneered the trail through Cumberland Gap and into Kentucky.  This was truly Indian Territory, mostly controlled by the Shawnee.  Boone founded the town of Boonesborough.  Here the fort came under attack many times, and at times Boone had to make risky trips for supplies.  Boone paid dearly for his efforts.  He lost two sons, and a brother to Indian attacks.  Boone always thought tales of his exploits were over stated.  He said he was an ordinary man.  However he did kill a bear.  He also survived the Indian Wars when others didn't.  At one point Boone was considered to be a traitor.  On a trip he was captured, and realized they would all be killed.  He arranged for the capture of the rest of his men, and waited for a time to escape.  At another time two of his daughters were abducted, and upon this story was based the tale of the abduction in “Last of the Mohicans.”  Boone really did follow the trail, and save his daughters.  Boone would eventually move father West, to Missouri before Missouri was part of the United States.  He died an old man for the time, age 85, of natural causes.

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Documentary Review: Civil War 360: The Confederacy: Trace Adkins

This is a very poignant presentation of the Civil War from the perspective of the South.  Trace Adkins' great-great grandfather served for the South, and was part of the defense of Vicksburg.  He was one of the 30,000 soldiers surrender to General Ulysses Grant.  Adkins tells other stories from the South.  This includes the presentation of the superiority of the calvary, and the ability of the calvary to attack well behind enemy lines, and bring back supplies.  There is also a presentation of the music of the war.  Maryland, was written as a response to the attacks in Baltimore when civilians were rioting against federal troops.  There is also a section on Jefferson Davis, and his younger wife.
I think the most poignant part of the film was viewing a portrait of General Robert E. Lee.  Adkins points out that there is sadness in his eyes.  Lee was prepared to lead the union, and did not  want Virginia to secede.  However when it did, he decided he could not raise his sword against Virginia.

Wednesday, June 22, 2016

Book Review: Fort Churchill: Nevada Military Outpost of the 1860's

Fort Churchill: Nevada Military Outpost of the 1860's, edited by Stanley W Paher, Research by Kathryn Totton, Nevada Publications, Las Vegas, NV 1981.


Fort Churchill was located about thirty miles east of  Virginia City along the Pony Express Trail in western Nevada.  It was an answer to the Paiute Wars of 1860 and was created to protect the overland trails and interests in Nevada.  It was initially manned by regular troops, but with the start of the Civil War most of the regular troops wen East to fight.  Californian and Nevada volunteers then had responsibility for the fort.  The garrison at the fort varies from 80 to 500 men.
This book starts with a very good description of the First and Second Battles of Pyramid Lake.  The first the white militia went ill prepared, and were routed.  Major William Ormsby was killed, as were most of the hundred or so men with him.  However the return battle had a different result.  Regular federals from California joined the fight, as did a larger volunteer militia with almost 500 members.  The Indians were quickly overwhelmed.  The first day of fighting heavy casualties were inflicted.  The second day most of the Native Americans had melted away leaving the field.  The volunteer militia went home, however the regular federal troops stayed and took up defensive positions.  With Captain Joseph Stewart commanding, this was the group that made Fort Churchill.  The cost of the fort was more than what would be expected, however natural resources were few and wood was hauled some distance to the fort, as were all other needed items.  Initially they guarded the Pony Express route, and as this gave way to the telegraph, they protected the telegraph wires.
The fort did not have an outer wall.  It had buildings on three sides.  On on side were the hospital, commissary and quarter master store and headquarters, on the north were officer housing, very fine two-story homes, and on the west were the regiment quarters and mess halls.  There were also corrals for horses.  there were as many as four calvary regiments located there at times.
After the fort was built, the were only occasionally involved in calming Indian issues, however they did happen.  Lieutenant Colonel Charles McDermit was killed in the last such conflict in 1865.  Fort McDermit was built near where he was killed.
The fort was more often used to keep a lid on Southern sympathizers during the war.  They would be arrested, and taken to the fort an put to work until the would sign a loyalty pledge.  Other civic issues were also handled by the military including a threatening strike by the mine worker in Virginia City.  Another time the investigated a lynching by a vigilance committee.
After the war the need for the fort became less and less.  It was changed form fort status to barracks status, and less and less people were stationed there.  It was closed in 1869 and much of the assets sold.  However there are still some ruins on the site.

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Documentary Review: Civil War 360 The Union: Smithsonian Channel

Ashley Judd is the narrator for this episode that looks at artifacts from the side of the North.  Judd tells the stories of her ancestors who were in the war.  One was wounded and lost his leg.  One of the interesting things of this film is the look at a doctor kit and what things would have been available.  there were some pain killers, there were not antibiotics.  They unfold "Old Glory" a large flag, which was hid during the war as it had stars for all the states.  There is a very nice look at some of the artifacts on display from Appomattox Court House.  This includes the table and chairs.  I remember seeing these in person when the Smithsonian came to San Jose many years ago.  Another thing that made this war more real was looking at the pictures some of the soldiers kept.  Pictures were an important part of the war, with embedded artists drawing action scenes, and photographers documented the aftermath, which often included bodies.
The New York riots as a result of the draft must have been horrendous; especially for African Americans.  A unit of regular soldiers had to but a stop to things, but over 200 people had died.  I really enjoyed this movie.  It did not rely on actors, but on artifacts which are only found in the Smithsonian.  Although there were at times actors showing what happened.
A tidbit is the presentation of molds of Abraham Lincoln's hands after his death.  he had very large hands.  We are also shown pictures of some of the women who fought in the Civil War, disguising themselves as men.  There were at least 20.

Documentary Review: World War II in Colour: Victory in Japan: episode 13

This is the final episode brought to us by BBC television.  In this the end of the war in the Pacific is presented started with Iwo Jima.  Iwo Jima was an important battle because it would give the Allies airstrips close enough to Japan to support the fire bombing raids with fighter escorts.  The U.S. had given up on tactical bombing and went with fire bombing which was highly effective, but would also destroy entire communities, with spreading flames faster than someone could run.  One such raid was attributed with 100,000 deaths.
Iwo Jima was a battle in which the Japanese refused to surrender, fighting to the death.  Of the 21,000 Japanese defending the island, 18,000 were killed in the fighting.  Only about three hundred were captured in the fighting.  The Japanese had ingrained in them the terrible things the Americans would do to them if they were caught.  About 3000 Japanese continued living in the caves and tunnels after the fighting was over, coming out at night to scavenge for food.  They slowly surrendered, the last surrendering in 1949.
The next major jump after Iwo Jima was Okinawa.  Here the commander swore he would make the Americans pay in blood.  Even though the landing was not resisted heavily, the defensive lines the Japanese were able to create on the island proved large obstacles to over come.  Just as the Americans began to make progress, the Japanese would fall back to another defensible line, and thus there was a series of battles and defensive lines.  Finally the Americans had to land another wave of Marines behind these lines.
The Battle at Sea was also terrible at Okinawa.  The Japanese employed Kamikaze pilots, in planes and jets, submarines and even a Kamikaze battle ship on a suicide mission.  It never reached the Americans as it was spotted and sunk by planes from the aircraft carriers.
However after Iwo Jima and Okinawa, the Americans were well aware of the cost in invading the Japanese mainland.  It also appeared the fire bombing would never bring the Japanese to surrender.  A much larger weapon was needed.  When President Truman succeeded to the presidency, he learned of the nuclear weapons.  There were two prototypes, a uranium bomb and a plutonium bomb.  It was decided to use both weapons if needed.  The bomb "Little Boy" was used on Hiroshima, and caused over 100,000 immediate deaths, with more deaths later due to radiation sickness, burns and starvation.  The second plutonium bomb "Fat Man" was dropped on Nagasaki.  It was actually the more powerful bomb, but missed its target causing about 40,000-80,000 deaths.  Again half were immediate with the others coming later.
About this same time, the Russians declared war against Japan.  They were actually trying to fatten their own territories, invading Manchuria and Mongolia.  Even after the Japanese surrendered, the Russians fought on trying to gain more territory.
Japan announced its surrender August 15, 1945.  The formal document of surrender was signed September 2 aboard the USS Missouri.  General Douglas McCarthy took over temporary leadership of Japan.

Monday, June 20, 2016

Book Review: A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux

Native American Dance

A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux drawings by Amos Bad Heart Bull, text by Helen H. Blish, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1967.
This is the most fascinating book.  Amos Bad Heart Bull drew sketches of the history of the Sioux, as he lived, or was told to him.  This pictures depict Crow vs Sioux battles, dances, Little Big Horn, Wounded Knee, Indian ceremonies, Sioux games, Sioux life and much more.  It includes a section of pictures in color, but most are in black and white.  Helen Blish asked the younger sister of Amos Bad Heart Bull if she could study his drawings.  This book is the result.  The originals were buried with the sister.
Victory Dance or Scalp dance, the items displayed are scalps and human parts.

Principle Character, Little Big Horn, George Custer, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, picture is symbolic

Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull

Initial Attack by Captain Marcus Reno

This attack is turned by Bad Heart Bull, Kicking Bear and Hard to Hit.  Bad Heart Bull is father of artist, Kicking Bear was at Wounded Knee


This picture shows Crazy Horse in the action

Captain Reno's men in the water

This depicts Crazy Horse killing Custer with a tomahawk.  Custer's was the second thrust at the encampment and was meant to catch them by surprise from behine.  However Gall and Crazy Horse were ready for them.  They did not return and retreat like Captain Reno, and penetrated enough into the Indian warriors that the were surrounded and cut off. 

This depicts the killing of Crazy Horse.  He gave himself up, and thought he would be sent to a reservation.  Instead when they went to jail him he began to resist, he attempted to draw a knife and was bayoneted by a guard

Principal character at Wounded Knee, Chief Kicking Bear and General Nelson Miles with Grant Short Bull in the middle.  I think this is again a symbolic representation

Samples of Ghost Dance outfit which was suppose to stop bullets

Murder of Sitting Bull and his son who was shot while in bed.  Native American Guards came to arrest Sitting Bull for not stopping the Ghost Dance.  There was a struggle and Sitting Bull was killed.  

Ghost Dance Ceremony

Ghost Dance song
Ghost Dancers surrounded by infantry and horse troops  (there were also four gatling guns present)

The Massacre

Women Dancing

Sunday, June 19, 2016

Biographical Book Review: Eva Peron: Leading Women

Leading Women: Eva Peron by Lesli J. Favor, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, New York, 2011.

This book starts with the day of renunciation, and talks about Eva declining the vice presidency, and then it goes back and tells her life.  The story told here is much different than that presented in Evita, although it admits she was a person with two sides to her story, the power hungry woman, using funds from the Eva Peron Foundation to buy furs and jewelry, versus the advocate for the poor, who helped establish woman's suffrage, woman's political party, and social action for the poor.
On thing is for sure, Eva rose from the lowest rung in Argentina, to the highest.  However she was never accepted by the oligarchy.  She was porn to the mistress of Juan Duarte, and in early life he took care of the family, but about the time Eva was born, he abandoned the family of his mistress.  He died when she was six years old, and the family went to his funeral.  It was only after a struggle that they were admitted.
Eva left rural Argentina, and moved to Buenos Aires when she was fifteen.  More likely she harassed her mother until she relented and took her, rather that Augustin Magaldi as presented in "Evita."  Evita lived in poverty for a time, but slowly made a name for herself, first in radio.  She eventually helped establish a radio station and performed melodramas.  She eventually became an actress in film, and received publicity in magazines.  She was 24 when she met Juan Peron.  The circumstances were at a benefit for victims of an earthquake in San Juan, Argentina.  She quickly became his lover and moved in with him, and followed his rise through the department of labor, and then to the vice presidency.
However all was not rosy.  Peron was arrested and taken away.  For two weeks Eva id not know where Juan had gone.  Her role in having him restored may not have been as great as presented.  More likely labor, for whom Juan had worked in the department of labor, threatened strike if he was not returned.  This was likely a bigger role.  At any rate, Juan Peron was returned, and all charges were dropped, and he ran for President of Argentina.  Eva supported him in this endeavor.  When he won, Eva was a different First Lady than others.  She moved into a government position in the Labor Department.  From this office she organized her Eva Peron Foundation as a way to help the poor.  She also worked with her descamisados (shirtless).  She did in fact go on the Rainbow Tour, represented Argentina in Europe.  She had an audience with the Pope.
WHen Peron came up for reelection, she had aspirations of  running with him for vice president.  However her health would not allow this, and she had to decline.  Eva had neglected her symptoms, but finally relented to doctor visits and was diagnosed with uterine cancer.  She survived the election, and Peron's second inauguration ceremony.  However shortly after she passed away.
In death Eva was still a political tool.  Her body was preserved, and she lay in wake for 16 days in the Department of Labor while people filed past for one last look.  From there work to preserve her body continued.  However, when Juan Peron was deposed, Eva's body disappeared.  Many felt it might be used to help Juan Peron politically.  It was only when he came back into power that the location was restored to Argentina.

Saturday, June 18, 2016

Documentary Review: Haunted History: Tombstone

This is a 2000 presentation from the History Channel, A&E.
In learning about the ghosts of a community, you also learn about the stories behind the ghosts.  Tombstone was a short lived town in terms of its heyday.  Now it is a tourist town living on the history of those few years in the 1880s.  Of course the most famous incident was the Gunfight at the OK Corral.  This set  a group of spirits, some who do not want to go away.  However there were also jilted lovers, one who shot his girlfriend, and then killed himself.  He had worked for nine months making money so as to marry his girl, and when he returned she had a different boy.  She was only 17 at the time.  He thought he had inflicted a mortal wound to the girlfriend, but she recovered.
Another was a jilted lover, who knew her man was having a fling with another woman.  She worked in a show, but would get away and check on her man.  One day she caught the other woman on his lap.  She said, I am going to cut your heart out, and took a knife and attempted to do just that.  She inflicted a mortal wound to the girl, stabbing her in the heart.  There is a boarding house which was for men only.  It still is not advised that women sleep in this residence because of the animosity of the male spirits.  And then finally an opera house, which produces plays today.  They deal with almost daily mischief from the ghostly visitors.  On one occasion a malevelant ghost went after the owner by choking him.  However usually the ghosts are harmless.

Native American Review: Ely Samuel Parker: Seneca


Ely Samuel Parker

Ely Samuel Parker is known as a Civil War officer, and the person who put in writing the final surrender terms.  He was a Lieutenant Colonel attached to the staff of Ulysses S. Grant.  Parker studied for the law, but he was not allowed to take the bar exam because as a Seneca he was not a U.S. Citizen.  He subsequently studied civil engineering which he pursued until the Civil War.
Grant's staff, Parker on left

After being turned down twice to serve in the army because of his being Indian, he approached an acquaintance Ulysses S. Grant and became a captain in the civil engineers serving under Grant.  He went with grant when he was assigned as the leader of all U.S. forces.  He served as his secretary and wrote much of Grant's correspondence.
Appomattox, Parker third from right, back row

He was present at Appomattox Courthouse, and later said, "At the time of surrender, General Lee "stared at me for a moment," said Parker to more than one of his friends and relatives, "He extended his hand and said, 'I am glad to see one real American here.' I shook his hand and said, 'We are all Americans.'"  After these event Parker was breveted to a general. When Grant became president, he was appointed commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the first Native American to serve in this post.   

Friday, June 17, 2016

Documentary Review: World War II in Colour: Victory in Europe: Episode 12

As the end of the war approached, the question was which of the Allies was going to claim which territory.  Stalin continued to push for a bigger piece of the pie.  The Nazis faced enemies on three sides, the Russians in the East, the United States and Britain on the West and South.  The Third Reich which was suppose to last a 1000 years was crumbling after five.  As the American finally made it across the Rhine, and moved towards Berlin, they too came across horrendous conditions in the concentrations camps, and piles of bodies who had been systematically killed.  Tough fighting faced the Allies, as well as huge gains, one day 350,000 nazi soldiers were surrendered.  The Russians approached Berlin.  The Battle for Berlin was terrible.  And even after Adolf Hitler and his new wife Eva Braun suicided, the battle in Berlin continued.  In the South the Italians relinquished and surrendered, and finally the Germans did the same.  First to Montgomery, who said he could only accept the surrender of those in front of him.  The surrender of the entire German force would have to include a wider audience.  Victory in Europe Day is May 8, 1945.  The country was split between the Allies, and even though Berlin was within the Russian sector, it too was split.  The other task after the war was to separate the war criminals.  To the Nuremberg Trials was given this task.  Some were sentenced to 10 years in prison, and other hung.  Many more committed suicide to avoid the fate of hanging.

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

The Story of Margret Ray, H.A. Ray and Curious George

The story of the Rays is remarkable.  Margret and H.A. or Hans were German Jews.  Hans developed a love of drawing, living across the street from the Hamburg zoo.  Margret was a writer.  They met in Brazil.  Hans was there selling bath tubs.  After marrying the returned to Europe to live in Paris.  There they published their first book, which introduced Curious George.  The book, "Cecily G. and the Nine Monkeys" introduced a little monkey, Fifi, who would later become George.
Just before Paris fell to the Nazis, the Rays fled on bicycles.  They had the pictures for a new book, about George on the bicycles with them.  The crossed the French-Spanish border, and caught a train for Lisbon. Portugal.  From there the sailed to Brazil.  They were able to use Han's Brazilian passport to gain entry to the United States.  Margret minded the business end of things and negotiated for a publisher.  They were able to produce the first Curious George book in 1941.  However with the war, subsequent books were put on hold.  There was not enough paper to produce children's books at the time.  However the Rays would write and illustrate seven Curious George books.  Some of them dealt with going to the hospital, some helped teach younger children to read.  George goes up in to space in a rocket, and in another wins a medal.  He also deals with an ostrich at the zoo.  What ever the story, they are delightful, and the Rays knew how to entertain children.  They did not have any children of their own, but were often involved in projects to improve the lives of children.

Father's Day and Sonora Smart Dodd


Father's Day followed Mother's Day.  It seems there was not as much sentiment surrounding Father's Day, and since people were not inclined to buy Father's Day flowers it lagged behind.  However the first event honoring fathers in the United States took place in 1908 in a West Virginia church, which in fact was a commemoration for 362 men who had died in a coal mine accident.  However the following year, Sonora Smart, whose mother had passed away, and she and her five brothers were raised by their widowed father, decided something should be done to honor fathers.  She approached clergy and government officials,  and June 19, 1910 became the first Father's Day honored in America.  The governor had proclaimed Father's Day as a state holiday.  The idea did not take off quickly.  Many were skeptical of the idea, thinking it was just a form of commercialism.  In 1916 President Woodrow Wilson honored the day by participating in the Washington celebration via telegraph.  In 1920 President Calvin Coolidge encouraged states to proclaim the day a holiday.  During WWII father's Day became a national institution.  It was a way to honor the men who were serving or who had served.  However it wasn't until 1972, via executive proclamation that Richard Nixon established the Holiday as the third Sunday in June.  It is estimated that Americans spend $ 1 billion annually on the holiday.  Sonora Smart Dodd was still living at the time.  She passed away in 1978 at age 96.

Monday, June 13, 2016

Book Review: The 19th Amendment

We The People: The 19th Amendment by Michael Burgan, Compass Point Books, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2006.
This is a very brief look at the struggle for women’s suffrage in America, and as such equal rights.  The women’s struggle for suffrage began as early as 1848 in upstate New York with a first meeting at Seneca Falls.  Elizabeth Cody Stanton and Lucretia Mott were the force behind the movement at that time.  Susan B. Anthony was also much involved.  The suffrage movement, and the movement for abolition of slavery saw many of the same characters, as thee women were also involved in collecting signatures to free the slaves.  Frederick Douglas and Harriet Tubman were also involved in the suffrage movement.   Initially the struggle involved victories in territories and states.  Wyoming was the first territory to grant the right to vote to women in 1869, followed by Utah territory in 1870.  Colorado and Idaho were the only other areas to grant the right to vote before the turn of the century.  However state to state victories were too slow.  Finally it was determined that a nationwide amendment was the only way to win the right to vote for women.  Again there were two strategies, a more confrontational attitude, and another that worked within the politics of the day.  There were many marches in Washington, trying to put pressure on politicians, and particularly President Woodrow Wilson.  After passage in Congress 36 states were needed to ratify the amendment.  Tennessee ended up being the 36th state, and the 19th amendment became law: 
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.

Sunday, June 12, 2016

Documentary Review: World War II in Colour: The Island War: Episode 11

In this we are presented the continuing saga in the Pacific.  This episode begins with the decimating of the Japanese Carrier force.  By the end of the war, all the Japanese carriers had been sunk.  Many of them were lost during the Battle of the Philippine Sea and the Battle of Leyte Bay.  Both of these fights centered around the Allies retaking the Philippines.
General Douglas MacArthur
There were two ideas of the U.S. and Allies conquering Japan.  The Navy favored an island hopping type war, getting them closer to Japan faster.  On the other hand, the Army favored a land battle, especially in the Philippines.  General Douglas MacArthur had promised he would return, and wanted to keep that promise.  The Navy felt that isolating the Philippines, they would eventually surrender.  The government proceeded with both plans.  The MacArthur plan was successful, but resulted in a high loss of life on both sides.  It also completed the destruction of the Japanese carrier fleet.
As the Americans approached Japan, one island at a time, the Japanese became more and more desperate.  The resorted to Kamikaze attacks at sea and in the air.  These attacks were very effective, and were devastating to American morale.  The Americans were looking for a quicker way to end the war, rather than facing the prospect of invading the Japanese homeland.

Native American Biographies: Estanislao and Yoscolo: California Yokut: Battle of San Joaquin Valley

In a very real sense, Estanislao may have been the inspiration for Zoro.  He would carve the letter "S" with his sword authenticating his work.   Estanislao was born Cucunuchi on the banks of the river which would later take his name, Stanislaus River in 1798.  He would eventually drift with his brother to Mission San Jose (in Fremont) where he would participate in religious education and be baptized and christened Estanislao after a Saint.  He even became alcalde of the community there for a time.  However he became disaffected with mission life, and lead a group of Native Americans from various tribes to San Joaquin Valley.  At one point he lead almost 4000 Native Americans. They preyed upon local ranchers, with as little loss of blood shed as possible.  Often they would use strategy to capture their victims without loss of life.  They also prayed on the missions, San Jose, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz.  The friars asked the Mexican government for help.  At first a small force from Presidio San Francisco attempted to resolve the matter, and came back limping, Sergeant Antonio Soto would later die from his wounds.  A larger group was sent, with the same results.  Finally Lieutenant Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (later general but now only 20 years old) would be sent with a larger force and three cannon.  For the first time cannon would be used in battle against native Americans in California.  They found the Indian force in about the same area, and were able to overcome their defensive works with the cannon.  When they attacked the next day, they discovered the Native Americans had scattered.  Vallejo returned claiming victory.  Estanislao would eventually return to Mission San Jose and receive a pardon from the governor.  He returned to his area of birth with Yoscolo and they continued raids against Mexicans.  Yoscolo did not mind killing them, and wore a mask.
Two reports indicate he either died shortly thereafter of small pox, or lived some time and lived by Knights Ferry as late as 1840.  I have also seen two battle sites, either by the confluence of the Stanislaus and San Joaquin Rivers.  Or just below Riverbank along the Stanislaus River.
Yoscolo was also Yokut.  His history parallels that of Estanislao, except that he was educated at Mission Santa Clara.  He too was appointed alcalde, or chief of the Native Americans there.  He lead a force of 200-300 Indians away form the mission as he became disaffected.  He joined with Estanislao and they continued raiding ranches in the San Joaquin Valley for a time.  Yoscolo lead an attack on the Mission Santa Clara for plunder.  As a result a larger force of volunteers came against them in the Santa Cruz Mountains in an area known as La Cuesta de Los Gatos because of the mountain lions that one dominated the area.  They had a battle that lasted all day.  It was only after the Indians had expended their arrows that the surrendered.  Yoscolo was found wounded.  He was beheaded, and his head displayed at Mission Santa Clara for a few days as a warning to others.

Saturday, June 11, 2016

Native American Biographies: Will Rogers: Cherokee

Will Rogers was born in Indian Territory, Oklahoma.  Both his parents were part Cherokee.  His father was a Cherokee judge and a Confederate veteran.  His mother died when he was young.  He was named for the Cherokee leader Colonel William Penn Adair.
Will Rogers has an interesting beginning as he tried to make his way in the world.  He traveled to South America to try his hand as a gaucho.  After going broke he traveled to South Africa where he got employment on a ranch.  He got his start in the entertainment business as a performer in the Texas Jack's Wild West Circus in Texas.  From there he went to Australia in the Wirth Brothers Circus.  In both instances he performed horse riding tricks and rope tricks.  From there he started in vaudeville in New York.  He got some notoriety after roping a bull that had gotten loss at Madison Square Garden.  He started out slow, mostly working after midnight shows.  At times he would add jokes to his lassoing tricks.  At other times he wouldn't.  By the time he made it to Ziegfeld Follies, he was telling many jokes based on what he read in the newspapers.  He had a regular spot as the "Ropin' Fool" and eventually morphed into the "Talkin' Fool."  Will Rogers then moved into pictures.  He starred in both silent movies and talking.  He played with many stars.  While traveling with Wiley Post, aviationist, exploring mail routes to Russia, he died in a plane crash.

Documentary Review: We Shall Remain: Tecumseh's Vision, episode 2

PBS Picture
This is the second episode in a five-part Native American PBS series presented on "American Experience."  It was directed by Ric Burns and Chris Eyre.  It using interviews, maps and historical reenactment.  Here we see Tecumseh's vision.  Tecumseh was a leader among the Shawnee.  He never signed a peace treaty with the Americans, but others did which would effect the Shawnee Territory.  He saw it slowly sliced away.  He also saw disease and hunger among his people. However he also saw the might of the Americans, and knew that the Shawnee could not face them alone.  His vision was to form a great Pan American Indian alliance, and to force the Americans to create an Indian Nation with recognized territory.  His brother Tenskwatawa had been less than an honorable man.  He too was sick.  However he recovered, saying he had seen a vision.  Tenskwatawa had seen that the Native People needed to avoid white ways, white clothing and especially alcohol.  Tecumseh saw this as a means to bring people together.  His brother established a following, and Tecumseh provided the leadership.  When his brother successfully predicted an eclipse, his influence greatly increased.  With this new energy, and people of over 20 tribes behind him, Tecumseh confronted the local American leader, William Henry Harrison.  Tecumseh confronted him as one speaking for all the Native American people, that they wanted their property back,which had been illegally sold by others who had no right to sell the property.  Of course these negotiations ended poorly.  Tecumseh traveled south to gain more support from the Creek and the Cherokee.  He also sought British support.  In the mean time Harrison attacked Prophetstown.  Tenskwatawa was in charge, and predicted victory.  Tecumseh had warned him not to be drawn into battle, however some of the warriors insisted they attack Harrison.  they did not have enough warriors nor ammunition to route the 1000 men army harrison had with him.  The abandoned Prophetstown and scattered in the end, both sides having serious losses.  Although the men of Tecumseh's alliance were scattered, they continued the fight.  When tecumseh returned they reorganized.  However it wasn't until they were joined by the British, in the War of 1812, that they alliance looked like it might be successful.  Tecumseh worked well with General Isaac Brock.  Tecumseh provided the needed man power, and Brock the ammunition and support.  Together they had some success, capturing the Fort of Detroit.  Tecumseh proved himself as a strategist and a warrior.  However Brock was killed, and his replacement, Henry Proctor left something to be desired.  He was much less willing to fight.  When Tecumseh's old nemesis headed into the fray with a large army, the British abandoned the field.  Tecumseh gave a mighty speech to him, asking him that if they abandoned the field he leave weapons for his people, because they intended to fight.  They were fighting for their lands.  Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of Thames.

Wednesday, June 8, 2016

Documentary Review: World War II in Colour: Episode 10: Closing the Ring

This is a very interesting episode, as the Russian approach Berlin from the East, and the Allies from the West.  The Allies were in trouble due to no good ways to bring in supplies.  The Germans had destroyed all the ports, and mined them heavily.  The Allies hoped to use Antwerp, but it was heavily defended.  They decided to go around, and use supply routes through Normandy, which were small, and required long distance travel.  Montgomery devised Operation Market Garden, also known as "A Bridge Too Far." as an alternative.  This offensive involved going around the heavily fortified Siegfried Line.  It required airborne troops to capture strategic bridges, while a column of tanks would follow up and relieve them.  However the last important bridge across the Rhine was not held.  The British were able to capture one side of the bridge, but by the time the armored reinforcements arrived they had been forced to surrender.  After this failure the capture of Antwerp became vital as the Allies were hampered by lack of supplies.  Canadian troops carried this fight.  It was difficult and took weeks of fighting before the Allies could bring in mine sweepers clear the port.  After getting the supplies through, the weather then hampered resupply.  The Allies dug in for the Winter, but Hitler had other plans.  He wanted to punch through the Allied lines, and retake Antwerp and thus molest the supply lines.  The Allies were caught off guard, which resulted in the Bulge in their line.  However they were eventually able to hold and push back.  This resulted in a great loss of men on material on the part of the germans, and in the end the line was pushed back to where they had begun.  This episode talks about some of the politics involved in a war; sometimes dirty.  Churchill and Stalin had divided the countries as Stalin looked more and more to having a buffer between himself and Germany.  This episode showed that Stalin ordered to have his troops standby in Poland, while the Germans and the Polish Guard fought it out.  Of course the Polish Guard was doomed without larger weapons.  They were killed, and captured.  Stalin's goal was to have Poland for Russia, and the Polish Guard was pro Western.  Many people died needlessly in Poland as a result.
As they moved towards Berlin, both sides saw the Jewish Holocaust, as the Nazis grappled with the "Jewish Problem."  6 million Jews were murdered during the war.

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Book Review: Among the Shoshones

Among the Shoshones, by Elijah Nicholas Wilson, Bookcraft, Salt Lake City, 1969.
This is a remarkable autobiographical story told by an oldtimer about things that happened to him when he was young.  He starts when he was 12, and he decided to run away with a group of Indians rather than herd sheep.  He was gone for two years.
He was taken in by Chief Washakie of the Shoshone, and was cared for by Chief Washakie's mother who had just lost two of her sons in an avalanche.  Wilson gives some very interesting descriptions of Chief Washakie, who was the head chief among the Shoshone.  He often had power struggles with Chief Pocatello, who was described as a more violent chief, who was responsible for murder and plunder along the Oregon Trail.  The terrain Chief Washakie's band of Shoshone covered is incredible.  The would cross the Continental Divide, hunting buffalo in the summer on the east side of the divide.  In one series is told the struggle they had with the Crows in order to keep their favorite hunting ground for buffalo.  There is a very good description of the buffalo hunt, and hobbling the buffalo with a long spear which was used to cut the tendons of the buffalo, and then they couldn't get away.
Wilson had some personal struggles, being the only white skinned boy in camp.  Many times he had fights with other children.  Sometimes his temper would get him into trouble.  At one point a kidnapping blunt was unfolded.  Some of Chief Pocatello's men wanted to sell him as a slave.  Another time the medicine man treating him after he had been bitten by a dog, deliberately mistreated the wound in an effort to make it worse.  He suggested amputation.  However Wilson knew something was wrong with the treatment, so stopped it and his wound healed.  These events happened in the 1850s.  There was talk amongst the whites of Wilson's having been kidnapped, and as a result it was determined he should go back home.  He intended to return to his Indian mother, but he never did.  Shortly after arriving home, the events of the Utah War took place, and he and his family removed to Utah Valley for a time.  After that Wilson was a Pony Express Rider, and then a stage coach driver.
An interesting story Wilson tells is of being a scout for General Albert Sidney Johnson in an attack against a combination of Indians who intended to kill the stage coach operators and cause trouble generally.  He said there were Paiute, Parowan and Shoshone.  The timing of this battle was shortly before the U.S. forces left Utah to fight in the Civil War.  He describes a lake, and the battle was fought not by a lake but by the Truckee River.  However there were marshes along the river.  This was the second Battle of Pyramid Lake and took place a short distance from Pyramid Lake.  The White forces routed the Indians, after the Indians had routed the Whites in the First Battle of Pyramid Lake (in real life not in the book.)  This is the only engagement I could find as large as the one described by Wilson.  Johnson wasn't there, but a commander from California who brought troops.  Also there were many local militia.
Wilson eventually settled in Rich  County, and became a bishop.

Sunday, June 5, 2016

Native American Biography: Satanta: Kiowa

Santanta was a Chief of the Kiowa during the time of Indian Wars.  In 1864 Federal forces wanted to punish the Indians for frequent raids on wagons along the Santa Fe Trail.  During the Civil War they was hardly any deterrent to these raids, and the Indians looked about the wagons as trespassers who were killing too many buffalo.  This raid was an expedition into the heartland of the Kiowa and Comanche peoples.  Colonel Kit Carson lead the raid.  This battle became known as the Battle of Adobe Walls.  However Carson took only 300 men and found a force of 2500-3000 braves waiting for him.  They were able to hold off the Indians for a time with their two Howitzers, but the retreated as quickly as they could back to their supply train.  Both sides claimed victory.  During the battle Santanta played an important part, confusing the American troops by mimicking and playing his own trumpet against the calls of the military trumpeter.
At negotiations for the Medicine Lodge Treaty Santanta became known as the Orator of the Plains.  This may have been a sarcastic title for his long windedness.  With the death of Dohasan, last of the chiefs of the entire Kiowa, three different sub-chiefs claimed power.  Santanta lead several parties against wagon trains, and had some success.  However in 1871 he went too far.  He and his men attacked the Warren Wagon Train.  They killed several men, and were able to take all the supplies and mules.  However some men escaped and fled to inform the military.  Santanta and others bragged about the attack, so he could not deny it.  He and two other sub-chiefs were arrested.  One attempted escape before he was tried.  He had sung his death song.  Santanta was tried and sentence to be hung.  However this sentence was commuted.  There was fear of reprisal should he be killed.  He served two years, and was released on parole after two years.  The government contended that he was involved in attacking a wagon  He was present at the second battle of Adobe Walls.  He had given his war lance to younger chiefs, and was only present.  However his presence violated his parole, and he was taken back to the penitentiary, where he worked on a chain gang.  He help prepare land for the railroad, through territory where he use to hunt.  This was too much for him and he committed suicide by jumping out of a high window of the penitentiary hospital.  His grandson, James Auchiah, a famous painter, claimed his body 90 years later from the penitentiary cemetery.
Dohasan was the last undisputed chief of the entire Kiowa Nation before the reservation period.  At the first Battle of Adobe Falls he and his people repelled the famous Kit Carson.  Carson and his men were outnumbered 10-1 and it was only clever use of his howitzers that kept he and his men from being over run.  Ads it was, this battle, although large in scope, did not result in a great many casualties other than the Old Indians who couldn't escape when their village was attacked.  Dohasan passed away a couple years after this battle.

Thursday, June 2, 2016

Native American Biography: Crazy Horse: Sioux

Crazy Horse is considered the greatest of the Sioux Chief, who lead his people to a valiant but futile struggle against White encroachment.  He was instrumental in the U.S. Army defeats at Rosebud and Little Big Horn.  Crazy Horse was a warrior with great medicine.  His father His Horse Looking, bestowed upon him his own name.  The Sioux did not face encroachment until after the Civil War.  However then it came upon them very fast.  They were first determined to open the Bozeman Trail, however after a two year struggle they finally closed the trail.  Red Cloud ended the war signing a treaty that they would live on a reservation but that the Black Hills would be Sioux.  Crazy Horse never signed a treaty and never lived on a reservation.  However reports of wealth in the Black Hills area caused the government to have desires for this area.  This started with action against Sioux who lived off of reservations.  His camp took in survivors of this early confrontation.  he vowed he was going to fight.  The first chance case at Rosebud Creek.   General Crook and his men were defeated, and made their way back to their base camp.  The Indians then moved to Little Big Horn, where 15,000 total, 5,000 warriors were gathered.  Little Big Horn was a disaster for the federals.  They were to gather their force on June 26, but Custer did not wait for the other resources and attacked a day early.   Custer's forces were annihilated while the Sioux did not finish off the other troops traveling with him.  SittingBull and Gall retreated to Canada the next spring, but Crazy Horse remained on his own land.  The federals caught up with Crazy Horse and his band in January of 1877, but through brave tactics they were able to escape.  general Crook sent Red Cloud to talk with Crazy Horse.  Crazy Horse finally relented to ease the suffering of his people.  He was taken to an agency, not the reservation as promised.  As Crazy Horse became more nervous, the federals became more cautious.  Finally many men were sent to arrest Crazy Horse.  When it became clear to Crazy Horse that he was not being taken to a meeting but to prison he resisted.  He drew a knife, but in the struggle he was bayonetted and died from his wound.  His band, 2000 strong were being taken to the reservation on the Missouri.  On their way they broke from the lines, and headed to Canada.  the federal force was too small to stop them.